This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Hardy-Weinberg Principle-2”.
1. Which of the following does not belong to the Hardy Weinberg principle?
a) Frequency remained fixed through generations
b) Used algebraic equations
c) Allele frequency varies from species
d) Gene pool remains a constant
Explanation: Allele frequencies does not vary from species to species. In a population, the frequency always remains fixed or constant according to Hardy Weinberg principle. The alleles and total genes in any population remain constant and hence stable.
2. It is known that the total sum of all the frequencies of the allele is _____
Explanation: According to Hardy Weinberg principle, the total sum of all the frequencies of the allele is one. It shows that the gene pool remains the same or constant, i.e. one. Hence, it can be also termed as genetic equilibrium.
3. Which of the following represents the Hardy Weinberg equation?
a) p2 + q2 = 1
b) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
c) p2 + q2 = 0
d) (p2 + q2)2 = 1
Explanation: The Hardy Weinberg equation is p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1. Here, p2 denotes the allele of AA and q2 denotes the allele aa. This shows that p, q, and A, a are related in multiplication. So, 2pq represent Aa.
4. The notation p and q of the Hardy Weinberg equation represent ________ of a diploid organism.
a) frequency of allele p
b) frequency of only allele A
c) frequency of the only allele a
d) frequency of allele A and a
Explanation: Individual frequencies can be represented as p and q. But for a diploid organism, p and q explain the frequency of allele A and allele a. p2 represents AA whereas q2 represent aa.
5. The difference in frequency indicates the extent of evolutionary change.
Explanation: It is a correct statement as allele frequency is the main trigger to evolution. When the frequency changes in a population either due to migration or other factors, this results in evolutionary change.
6. How many factors affect the Hardy Weinberg principle?
Explanation: Hardy Weinberg stated that there are six factors affecting this principle. They are Gene migration or gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, genetic recombination, and natural selection. Each factor plays a major role in evolution.
7. Which of the following does not belong to factors affecting the Hardy Weinberg principle?
a) Gene migration
b) Genetic drift
c) Genetic drop
Explanation: There are six factors affecting this principle. Among the factors, the genetic drop is not included in them. They only include Gene migration or gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, genetic recombination, and natural selection.
8. The process when some species migrate from the original to a new place, which in turn changes the allele frequency is called ______
a) Gene drift
b) Gene migration
c) Gene travel
d) Genetic recombination
Explanation: Gene migration or gene flow occurs when some species migrate from original to a new place. This changes the allele frequency in the old as well as a new place. So, new genes or alleles are being added to the new population and removed from the old one.
9. Gene drift occurs when gene migration occurs ______
a) by chance
d) due to disaster
Explanation: Gene flow occurs when gene migration occurs many or multiple times. When this occurs by a chance, a process called gene drift occurs. It cannot occur spontaneously, slowly or due to a disaster.
10. Which is the correct statement regarding Founder effect?
a) Named after the scientist John Founder
b) No large change in frequency
c) The old population become founders
d) Formation of new species
Explanation: Some species travel to new places. This changes the allele frequency totally and makes them different species. So, the original species that migrated become founders. Hence the name Founder effect.
11. What results in the formation of new phenotypes?
a) Pre-existing helpful mutations
b) Post-existing helpful mutations
c) Pre-existing disadvantageous mutations
d) Post-existing advantageous mutations
Explanation: According to microbial experiments, pre-existing helpful of advantageous mutations results in the formation of new phenotypes. This finally results in a process called Speciation. Mutation also has a relation with creating new phenotypes.
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