This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 8 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Active and Passive Immunity”.
1. Who is the Father of Passive immunity?
a) Von Behring
b) Carolus Linnaeus
c) Edward Jenner
d) Louis Pasteur
Explanation: Von Behring is known as the Father of Passive Immunity. Carolus Linnaeus, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur are the fathers of Taxonomy, Immunology and Bacteriology respectively.
2. Active immunity is due to _________
a) Killer T-cells
b) Memory cells
c) Helper T-cells
d) Suppressor T-cells
Explanation: Active immunity is due to the memory cells. These are sensitised T-cells which retain the memory of antigen-specificity for future, sometimes life-long.
3. Active immunity is acquired immunity produced in an individual due to inoculation of antiserum.
Explanation: Active immunity is an immune response generated in an individual due to the previous contraction of disease or vaccination.
4. Exogenous supply of antibodies provides which of the following types of immunities?
a) Artificial Active Immunity
b) Natural Active Immunity
c) Active immunity
d) Passive Immunity
Explanation: Exogenous supply of antibodies provide passive immunity to the organism. Exogenous supply of antibodies means when ready-made antibodies are directly being given to protect the body against foreign agent is called passive immunity.
5. Which of the following is the most purified form of the vaccine?
a) 1st generation
b) 2nd generation
c) 3rd generation
d) 4th generation
Explanation: 3rd generation vaccines are the most purified forms of vaccines as they have been genetically engineered to produce one or two specific proteins. These vaccines are pure synthetic antigenic polypeptides as their genes are directly extracted from the pathogens.
6. Passive immunity is fast but lasts for a short duration.
Explanation: Passive immunity is fast but lasts for a shorter duration. Active immunity is slow but the response is long-lived.
7. Which of the following is not a killed form of first-generation vaccines?
b) Influenza vaccine
c) TAB vaccine
d) Salk Vaccine
Explanation: DPT, TAB vaccine, Salk vaccine are all types of killed forms of the first-generation vaccine. Influenza vaccines are attenuated.
8. How are modified genes introduced into the host cells for preparing third-generation vaccines?
a) Introduced by DNA injection
b) Introduced by cooling and then icing the cells
c) Introduced by first giving a heat shock and then cooling the cells
d) Introduced by making new pathways for pathogens
Explanation: The modified genes are introduced by DNA injection. The host cells read the DNA and synthesise the pathogen’s protein. As these new proteins produced are recognised as foreign, the immune system is alerted and a range of immune responses are triggered.
9. When preformed antibodies are directly injected into the body, they provide which kind of immunity?
a) Natural Active immunity
b) Artificial Active Immunity
c) Natural Passive immunity
d) Artificial passive immunity
Explanation: When preformed are directly injected into the body, they provide us with Artificial Passive Immunity. For example, Anti-Venom serum is immediately given after a snake bite, Anti-rabies serum is immediately given after a dog bite.
10. Which of the following attacks of diseases is not going to provide any immunity to the person?
a) Common cold
b) Small Pox
Explanation: A person who has recovered from smallpox, measles or mumps develop natural active immunity against those pathogens and will not suffer from these diseases again as these diseases are itself memory cells generating diseases.
11. IgA and IgG antibodies provide which of the following kinds of immunity to the infant or foetus?
a) Natural Active Immunity
b) Natural Passive Immunity
c) Artificial Active Immunity
d) Artificial Passive Immunity
Explanation: IgA and IgG antibodies provide natural passive immunity to the infant or the foetus. The colostrum secreted by the mother during the initial days of lactation has an abundant amount of IgA antibodies to protect the infant. The foetus also receives some IgG antibodies from their mother through the placenta during pregnancy.
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