Biology Questions and Answers – Biotechnological Applications in Medicine: Molecular Diagnosis – 2

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This set of Biology Quiz for Class 12 focuses on “Biotechnological Applications in Medicine: Molecular Diagnosis – 2”.

1. ELISA stands for _______
a) Enzyme Like Immuno-sorbent Assay
b) Enzyme-Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay
c) Enzyme-Linked Immuno-similar Assay
d) Enzyme-Linked Immuno-sorbent Array
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: ELISA stands for Enzyme-Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay. It is a technique used for the detection and quantification of various substances such as hormones, peptides, antibodies, etc. it is used for the detection of many diseases.
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2. A ______ of a disease helps to suspect the presence of pathogen within the body.
a) disease
b) symptom
c) consequence
d) effect
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: A symptom of a disease helps to suspect the presence of pathogens within the body. A symptom is a physical and mental feature that indicates the condition of the disease. Symptoms of diseases can be the same or vary according to person and disease.

3. Low concentration of any pathogen can be detected by ______ of their nucleic acid.
a) cutting
b) amplification
c) joining
d) denaturation
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Low concentration of any pathogen can be detected by amplification of their nucleic acid. Amplification means increasing the number. The high number of nucleic acid can ease in finding pathogens, symptoms and cure against it.

4. Amplification of nucleic acid can be done with the help of ______
a) Centrifugation
b) RDT
c) ELISA
d) PCR
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Amplification of nucleic acid can be done with the help of PCR. PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction. It was developed by Kary Mullis in 1893.

5. PCR is used to detect _____ in patients having AIDS.
a) pneumonia
b) fever
c) HIV
d) cough
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: PCR is used to detect HIV in patients having AIDS. PCR is used to detect the genetic material of the HIV virus that is RNA. It is used to detect early infections within the patient’s body.
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6. PCR is used to detect _______ in cancer patients.
a) fever
b) mutations
c) cold
d) cough
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: PCR is used to detect mutations in cancer patients. It is used to find out certain changes in the genetic material of an organism, specific gene or chromosome. Thus it is useful for the detection of various genetic disorders including cancer.

7. ______ can be used to identify genetic disorders.
a) Centrifugation
b) PCR
c) Chromatography
d) RIA
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: PCR can be used to identify genetic disorders. Amplification of nucleic acid can be done with the help of PCR and is used to find out certain changes in the genetic material of an organism, specific gene or chromosome.

8. A single-stranded DNA or RNA tagged with a radioactive molecule is called ______
a) prove
b) ssDNA
c) probe
d) ssRNA
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A single-stranded DNA or RNA tagged with a radioactive molecule is called a probe. It is an oligonucleotide used for the amplification of nucleic acids in PCR. They emit fluorescence after successful binding with the sequence.

9. Probes ________ with its complementary DNA.
a) separate
b) stand
c) add
d) hybridize
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Probes hybridize with its complementary DNA. The probe is a single-stranded DNA or RNA tagged with a radioactive molecule that is used in PCR for the amplification of genetic material.

10. The hybrid of the radioactive probe and its complementary DNA is detected by ______
a) ELISA
b) RIA
c) autoradiography
d) PCR
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The hybrid of the radioactive probe and its complementary DNA is detected by autoradiography. Autoradiography is a technique that uses X-rays for the detection of radioactive substances. When exposed to X-rays the radioactive material emits light which helps in their detection.
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11. Autoradiography is used for the detection of ______
a) cold
b) cancer
c) fatigue
d) fever
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Autoradiography is used for the detection of cancer. It is used for the detection of radioactive material in any biological specimen. It is used in the detection of target receptors in various tissues.

12. ELISA is based on the principle of _______ reaction.
a) antibody-antibody
b) antigen-antigen
c) antigen-antibody
d) DNA-RNA
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: ELISA is based on the principle of antigen-antibody reaction. It is used for the detection of proteins, antibodies, etc. produced by a person against that specific antigen. It is used for the detection of various diseases such as HIV, AIDS, syphilis, etc.

13. Which technique depends on the antigen- antibody reaction?
a) PCR
b) ELISA
c) Chromatography
d) RDT
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: ELISA is a technique that depends on the antigen-antibody reaction. The human body produces antibodies against all types of antigens. Thus ELISA is used for the detection of the antibodies which helps in the detection of various diseases.

14. In ELISA the antigens can be _____
a) antibody
b) urine
c) serum
d) proteins
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In ELISA the antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or any part of that antigen. In this antigens or part of an antigen is attached to the surface against which antibodies are available. Thus ELISA is a technique that depends on the antigen-antibody reaction.

15. In ELISA ______ synthesized by the pathogen can be detected.
a) proteins
b) urine
c) serum
d) antibody
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In ELISA proteins synthesized by the pathogen can be detected. It can be used in the detection of any cell component of the pathogen such as glycoproteins, nucleic acids, etc.
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16. Antibodies are secreted against the _____
a) antigen
b) animals
c) cells
d) antibodies
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Antibodies are secreted against the antigen. Antibodies are the immunoglobulin which binds with the antigen and eliminates it. These are developed by the immune system of humans.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn