This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 16 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Environmental Issues – Air Pollution and its Control”.
1. What is an undesirable change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, land, water, or soil due to the introduction of contaminants called?
Explanation: Any undesirable change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, land, water, or soil due to the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment is known as pollution. It is also known as environmental pollution and affects the environment adversely.
2. What are the agents that bring about such an undesirable change (pollution) are called?
Explanation: The agents (can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants) that bring about such an undesirable change (pollution) are called pollutants. These are the components of pollution.
3. When did the Government of India pass the Environment Protection Act?
Explanation: The Environment Protection Act was passed by the Government of India in the year 1986. It was passed in order to control environmental (air, water, and soil) pollution.
4. Which act was passed to protect and improve the quality of our environment?
a) The Mental Healthcare Act
b) The Coal Mines Act
c) The National Sports University Act
d) Environment Protection Act
Explanation: The Environment Protection Act was passed by the Government of India in order to control environmental (air, water, and soil) pollution. It was passed in the year 1986.
5. What is the impact of air pollution on plants?
a) Infection in the lungs
b) Irritation in eyes
c) Reduce growth and yield of crops
d) Deafening of ears
Explanation: Air pollution has an adverse effect on crops and plants. They reduce the growth and yield of crops by increasing the rate of premature plant death. This decreases the overall productivity of an ecosystem.
6. On what does the harmful effect of pollution depend on?
a) The concentration of pollutants and the organism
b) The concentration, duration of exposure to pollutants and the organism
c) The concentration of pollutants and duration of exposure
d) The organism only
Explanation: The harmful effect of pollution depends on the concentration, duration of exposure to pollutants, and the organism. Air pollution leads to respiratory diseases in animals while decreasing productivity in plants.
7. Which industries release particulate air pollutants along with harmless gases, such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc.?
a) Oil industry
b) Invitro Fertilization clinics
c) Plant tissue culture labs
d) Thermal power plants and smelters
Explanation: The thermal power plants and smelters release smokestacks. These smokestacks contain particulate matter and various gases containing air pollutants along with harmless gases, such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc.
8. Which is the most widely used technique for removing particulate matter?
b) Growing trees
c) Electrostatic precipitator
Explanation: The electrostatic precipitator is the most widely used technique for removing particulate matter as it removes the 99 percent particulate matter present in the exhaust of various industries. It has electrode wires that release electrons that help in attracting the charged dust particles.
9. Which component of an electrostatic precipitator can remove gases like sulphur dioxide through a spray of water or lime?
b) Electrode wires
Explanation: A scrubber present in an electrostatic precipitator can remove gases like sulphur dioxide through a spray of water or lime. It is a component from which the dirty air enters in and clean air is released out.
10. What does CPCB stand for?
a) Central Particulate Control Board
b) Central Panama Channel Board
c) Central Pollution Control Board
d) Central Pollution Channel Board
Explanation: Central Pollution Control Board is designated as CPCB. It was formed in the year 1974 under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. It promotes the prevention, control, and abatement of pollution.
11. Where are the catalytic converters fitted?
c) Electrostatic precipitator
Explanation: Automobiles consists of the catalytic converters which are fitted in them. They have expensive metals such as platinum-palladium and rhodium that work as catalysts for reducing the emission of poisonous gases.
12. What is an undesired high level of sound called?
Explanation: An undesired unpleasant loud or high level of sound that causes disturbance is called noise. It is measured in Hertz (Hz) which is a derived unit of frequency and is defined as cycles per second.
13. What amount of noise may damage eardrums thus permanently impairing hearing ability?
a) 10 dB
b) 150 dB
c) 15 dB
d) 50 dB
Explanation: An undesired unpleasant loud or high level of sound that causes disturbance is called noise. Almost 150 dB of noise may damage eardrums thus permanently impairing hearing ability. It may also cause sleeplessness, increased heartbeat, and altered breathing patterns in humans.
14. What was the position of Delhi among the 41 most polluted cities of the world in the 1990s?
Explanation: Among the 41 most polluted cities of the world Delhi was in the fourth position in the 1990s. This was because it had more cars than the states of Gujarat and West Bengal put together.
15. Why is CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) preferred over petrol?
a) Burns most efficiently
b) It is expensive
c) Burns less efficiently
d) Can be adulterated
Explanation: CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) preferred over petrol to reduce air pollution. This is because CNG burns most efficiently and very little of it is left unburnt. It is cheaper than petrol and cannot be easily adulterated.
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