This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Human Disease – AIDS-1”.
1. What is the full form of AIDS?
a) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
b) Assimilated Infectious Death Syndrome
c) Auto Immunity Diseased Syndrome
d) Auto-Immune Disorders
Explanation: The full form of AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. This means deficiency of the immune system, acquired during the lifetime of an individual indicating that it is not a congenital disease.
2. AIDS is characterised by which of the following?
a) Reduction in the number of platelets
b) Very less RBC count
c) Reduction in the number of T4-lymphocytes
d) Very High Blood Pressure
Explanation: AIDS is characterised by a reduction in the number of CD4 or helper T4-lymphocytes because of infection of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is also called a slim disease.
3. Through which of the following routes, the transmission of AIDS does not take place?
a) Parenteral Route
b) Sexual Route
c) Transplacental Route
d) Faeco-oral Route
Explanation: The transmission of AIDS takes place by Parenteral Route (though blood contact involving unscreened transfusion of blood, poorly sterilised surgical instruments, etc.), Sexual Route and Transplacental Route-Infection from infected mothers to foetus.
4. AIDS can spread through mosquito bites, hugging or touching the infected individual.
Explanation: AIDS does not spread through mosquito bites, hugging, kissing, sharing meals, toilet towels or utensils, shaking hands, coughing, sneezing or looking after AIDS patients.
5. Which structure is depicted in the following figure?
a) Structure of HIV
b) Structure of T4- lymphocytes
c) Structure of RBCs
d) Structure of WBCs
Explanation: The given figure represents the structure of HIV. HIV consists of a core RNA with reverse transcriptase surrounded by a protein coat. The protein coat around the core consists of a protein called P-24. Outside this protein, the coat is a layer composed of another protein called P17.
6. Which organisation in India is helping to sensitize people about AIDS?
Explanation: In India, the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) and other non-governmental Organisations are doing a lot to educate people about AIDS. WHO has started a number of programmes to prevent the spreading of HIV infection.
7. How does the virus multiplication take place in the human body?
a) The virus enters into macrophages and forms viral DNA
b) Virus destroys WBCs
c) The virus makes its own DNA and gets killed
d) The virus multiplies in CD4 receptors
Explanation: After getting into the body of the person, the virus enters into macrophages where the RNA genome of the virus replicate to form viral DNA with the help of enzyme Reverse Transcriptase.
8. Why does AIDS patient start suffering from other common infections?
a) The decrease in RBC count
b) Reduction in the number of platelets
c) Low WBC count
d) The decrease in the number of Helper T-lymphocytes
Explanation: Due to the decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes, the person starts suffering from infections that could have been otherwise overcome such as those due to bacteria, viruses, fungi and even parasites.
9. Which of the following cells behave as a factory of HIV?
Explanation: When the virus attacks the immune system of the body, it gets into the macrophages where the RNA genome of the virus replicates to form the viral DNA. This viral DNA gets incorporated into the host cell’s DNA and directs the infected cells to produce virus particles. The macrophages continue to produce virus and in this way acts like HIV factory.
10. The genetic material of AIDS virus is _________
a) single-stranded DNA
b) single-stranded RNA
c) double-stranded DNA
d) double-stranded RNA
Explanation: HIV is a retrovirus having a rounded outline. The core has two single strands of genomic RNA, enzyme reverse transcriptase, protein P-15 associated with genomic RNA, inner covering of P-24 and outer of P-17.
11. In which year AIDS infection was detected in India?
Explanation: In India, AIDS infection was detected in 1986. In India, HIV positivity had reached high proportions in an area adjoining the golden triangle (Laos, Thailand and Myanmar) due to intravenous drug addictions.
12. Which of the following glycoproteins on the protein coat of virus helps it in the attachment of the virus to CD4 receptors?
Explanation: The outermost envelope consists of a phospholipid bilayer studded with glycoproteins (GP120 and GP41). The major cell infected by HIV is the Helper T-lymphocytes that bears the CD4 receptors site. The attachment pf virus to CD4 receptor site is by the help of GP120 on the protein coat of the virus.
13. The name of the AIDS-causing virus was given by ICBN.
Explanation: AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, a name given in 1986 by the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature. ICBN stands for International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
14. AIDS was first reported in ___________
Explanation: AIDS was first reported in the USA amongst homosexuals in 1981 and in last years or so, it has spread all over the world killing more than 25 million people.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Biology – Class 12.
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