This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests and for Improved Food Quality”.
1. Which of the following is another major cause for large scale destruction of crop plants?
a) Plant breeding
b) Mutation breeding
c) Insect and pest infestation
Explanation: Another major cause for large scale destruction of crop plants and crop produce is insect and pest infestation. Breeding methods for insect pest resistance involves the same steps as those for any other agronomic trait such as yield or quality.
2. Which of the following characteristics does not provide insect pest resistance to crops?
Explanation: Insect resistance in host crop plants may be due to morphological, biochemical or physiological characteristics. Hairy leaves in several plants are associated with resistance to insect pests. For example; resistance to jassids in cotton and cereal leaf beetle in wheat.
3. Which of the following is not a biochemical characteristic of insect resistance in crop plants?
a) High aspartic acid
b) Low nitrogen
c) Low sugar content
d) Solid stem
Explanation: The various biochemical characteristics of insect resistance in host crop plants include high aspartic acid, low nitrogen and sugar content, for example; in maize, leads to resistance to maize stem borers.
4. In cotton, solid stems lead to non-preference by the stem sawfly.
Explanation: In wheat, solid stems lead to non-preference by the stem sawfly. Smooth leaves and nectar-less cotton varieties do not attract bollworms. These are some of the morphological and physiological characteristics of insect-resistant plants.
5. The flat bean crop is not resistant to which of the following?
c) Fruit borer
Explanation: Flat bean crops are resistant to Jassids, Aphids and Fruit borers. Sources of insect-pest resistance genes may be cultivated varieties, germplasm collections of the crop or wild relatives.
6. Pusa Gaurav is the variety of _________
b) flat bean
Explanation: Pusa Gaurav is the variety of Brassica crop. Brassica is also known as rapeseed mustard. The varieties of Flat Bean, Okra and Cauliflower include Pusa Sem 2, Pusa Sawani and Pusa Shubhra respectively.
7. How many people in the world suffer from vitamin deficiencies?
a) 2 billion
b) 3 billion
c) 4 billion
d) 5 billion
Explanation: Three billion people in the world suffer from micronutrient, protein and vitamin deficiencies or hidden hunger because they cannot afford to buy enough fruits, vegetables and legumes, fish and meat.
8. Which of the following is not a result of the deficiencies of micronutrients?
a) Glowing skin
b) Risk of diseases
c) Reduced lifespan
d) Reduce mental abilities
Explanation: Diets lacking essential micronutrients- particularly iron, vitamin A, iodine and zinc- increase the risk for diseases, reduce lifespan and reduce mental abilities. More than 840 million people in the world do not have adequate food to meet their daily food and nutritional requirements.
9. Which of the following is the most practical mean to improve public health?
a) Mutation Breeding
b) Conventional Plant Breeding
Explanation: Biofortification is breeding of crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals, or higher protein and healthier fats. It is the most practical means to improve public health.
10. Which of the following is not an objective of breeding for improved nutritional quality?
a) Improving protein content
b) Improving Oil content
c) Increasing soil content
d) Improving vitamin content
Explanation: Breeding for improved nutritional quality is undertaken with the objectives of improving-
i. Protein content and quality
ii. Oil content and quality
iii. Vitamin content
iv. Micronutrient and mineral content
11. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Bangalore, has also released several vegetable crops rich in vitamins and minerals.
Explanation: The Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, has also released several vegetable crops that are rich in vitamins and minerals. For example; vitamin A enriched carrot, spinach, pumpkin; vitamin C enriched bitter gourd, mustard, tomato; iron and calcium-enriched spinach; and protein-enriched beans-broad, lablab, French and Garden peas.
12. In which year, maize hybrids having essential amino acids were released in India?
Explanation: In 2000, maize hybrids that had twice the amount of the amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, compared to existing maize hybrids were developed.
13. Which of the following wheat variety was used as a donor for improving cultivated wheat?
a) Atlas 66
b) Atlanta 68
c) Atlas 77
d) Atlanta 90
Explanation: Wheat variety, Atlas 66, having a high protein content, has been used as a donor for improving cultivated wheat. Also, it has been possible to develop an iron-fortified rice variety containing over five times as much iron as in commonly consumed varieties.
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