This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Organisms and Populations – Adaptations – 2”.
1. What is a population?
a) Species of a community
b) Individuals in the same species
c) Individuals in a family
d) Communities in an ecosystem
Explanation: Population is the level of the organization after an organism. Various organisms come together and start residing at the same place known as population. The population includes organisms of the same group or species.
2. What are the populations of the different species which live and interact together in the ecosystem called?
Explanation: A group of populations is known as a community. It is a group of people who share the same place or live within the same area. These people may share common characteristics. It is the organizational level between population and ecosystems.
3. What are the interactions between organisms in a community called?
a) Physical interaction
b) Biological interaction
c) Psychological interaction
d) Chemical interaction
Explanation: The interactions between organisms in a community are called biological interaction. They may include organisms of the same species or different species. The interactions between organisms are essential for survival and the proper functioning of the ecosystem.
4. What are the modifications of the organisms living on the land for their survival called?
Explanation: The modifications of the organisms living on the land for their survival called terrestrial adaptations. It is exhibited by all organisms, plants as well as animals. These adaptations are for various biological activities.
5. Which of the following is an adaptation for running?
Explanation: The adaptation for running is known as cursorial adaptation. It is an adaptation for fast running to find hiding places for protection from various predators. Some examples of cursorial animals are deer, horse, cockroach, leopard, etc.
6. What is an adaptation for climbing and balancing called?
Explanation: The adaptation for climbing and balancing is known as arboreal adaptation. It is also known as scansorial adaptation. It is used by animals for climbing on trees, rocks, walls, etc. This type of adaptation is shown by monkeys, sloths, chameleons, koalas, etc.
7. Which among the following is a characteristic of arboreal adaptation?
a) Longer loop of Henle
b) Long prehensile tail
c) Short limbs
d) Hind limbs provided with longer toes
Explanation: Hind limbs provided with longer toes are a characteristic of arboreal adaptation. Along with this arboreal animals have a long prehensile tail (monkeys) with strong and stout limbs. They also have opposable digits (marsupials) and elongated claws (squirrels).
8. Which among the following has adapted for arboreal adaptation?
Explanation: Monkey is an example of arboreal adaptation. It has strong and stout limbs, long prehensile tail along with opposable digits. Because of these adaptations they can easily climb on trees, walls.
9. What is an adaptation for survival in the desert called?
a) Terrestrial adaptation
b) Fossorial adaptation
c) Arboreal adaptation
d) Desert adaptation
Explanation: The adaptation for survival in the desert is called desert adaptation. It is a mode of life in extreme terrestrial habitats. These animals have thick and hard skin and are nocturnal. They have a longer loop of Henle for more water reabsorption.
10. Which of the following has adapted for desert adaptation?
Explanation: Camel is an animal adapted for desert adaptation. It stores water in all body tissues. They also have a hump made up of fatty tissue. They have longer Henle’s loop in kidneys.
11. What is an adaptation for an aquatic mode of life called?
Explanation: The adaptation for aquatic life is called aquatic adaptation. They have large spindle-shaped streamlined bodies. Their skin is rich in mucous glands and has gills for the absorption of dissolved oxygen.
12. Which adaptation is a feature of fishes?
a) Hollow bones
b) Presence of longer loop of Henle
c) Streamlined bodies and scales
d) Presence of beak
Explanation: Streamlined bodies with scales are a characteristic feature of fishes. They have gills for the absorption of dissolved oxygen and also have an air bladder that helps in floating in the water.
13. What is an adaptation for flying called?
Explanation: The adaptation for flying or gliding is called volant adaptation. These animals have lighter bodies as compared to other species. These organisms have wings with feathers, hollow spongy bones along with larger hearts.
14. Among the following whose feature is a hollow body with pneumatic or spongy bones?
Explanation: Hollow body with pneumatic or spongy bones is a feature of birds. They have boat-shaped sternum, thin cranial bones, and beaks that help in the reduction of body weight by providing lightness to ease flight.
15. In which organisms left ovary and oviduct are present?
Explanation: Only left ovary and oviduct are present in birds. Many organs such as right ovary and oviduct, gall bladder, urinary bladder are either absent or vestigial to reduce body weight, provide lightness and ease in flying.
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