This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Patterns of Biodiversity”.
1. How is the diversity of plants and animals throughout the world?
Explanation: Biodiversity is the variety and variability of all the levels of biological organization (plant and animal life) on Earth. Throughout the world, the diversity of plants and animals is not a uniform that is uneven distribution is observed.
2. For many groups of animals or plants, which is the most well-known pattern in diversity?
a) Latitudinal gradient
b) Longitudinal gradient
c) Aquatic gradient
d) Meridian gradient
Explanation: The latitudinal gradient has the most well-known pattern in diversity having many groups of animals and plants. A decrease in diversity of species is observed while moving from the equator towards the poles.
3. What happens to species diversity as we move away from the equator towards the poles?
Explanation: The diversity observed at the species level is known as the species diversity. It is the number and abundance of each species in a particular area. A decrease in the diversity of species is observed while moving from the equator towards the poles.
4. How many species of birds are located in Colombia that is located near the equator?
Explanation: Colombia that is located near the equator harbors 1,400 species of birds. Columbia is a country located in South Carolina, USA. It is the second most mega-diverse country in the world, ranking first in bird species.
5. Which of the following species of bird is found in New York?
a) Indian Vulture
b) Indian Bustard
c) American Woodcock
d) Bengal Florican
Explanation: New York is present in the United States and is the most populous city in the US. Featuring a humid subtropical climate, it is a home for 150 species of birds. American Woodcock is the native bird of New York.
6. How many species of birds are located in Greenland?
Explanation: Greenland is located between the Arctic and an Atlantic ocean is the world’s largest island. The island is sparsely populated in vegetation and is a home for 56 bird species of which most of them are seabirds.
7. Which place has the greatest biodiversity on Earth?
a) Western Ghats
b) Australian forest
c) African forest
d) Amazonian rain forest
Explanation: The tropical Amazonian rain forest situated in South America has maximum biodiversity on Earth. Situated in the tropical region, it is home for 378 of reptiles, 427 of amphibians and mammals, 1,300 birds, 3,000 of fishes, 40,000 plants and 1,25,000 invertebrates species.
8. Which environments are less seasonal, relatively more constant and predictable?
a) Arctic environments
b) Temperate environments
c) Tropical environments
d) Polar environments
Explanation: The less seasonal, more constant and predictable environments are the tropical environments. Due to such environmental consistency, they promote specialization in the niche and lead to a greater diversification of species.
9. What energy available in the tropics contributes to higher productivity?
b) Fossil fuel
Explanation: The solar energy contributes to higher productivity in the tropical regions. This leads to more food production that in turn leads to specialization in the niche and leads to a greater diversification of species.
10. Which region had a long evolutionary time for species diversification?
a) Temperate environments
b) Polar environments
c) Tropical environments
d) Arctic environments
Explanation: Tropical environments have remained undisturbed for millions of years that are a long evolutionary time. Due to such environmental consistency, they promote specialization in the niche and lead to a greater diversification of species.
11. Who observed that within a region species richness increased with increasing the area explored, but this increase is only up to a limit?
a) Charles Darwin
b) Alexander von Humboldt
c) Rudolf Virchow
d) Louis Pasteur
Explanation: Alexander von Humboldt a German naturalist and geographer explored the South American jungles. Through his observations, he concluded that with the increasing explored area, the species diversification increased. But this increase in diversity of species was seen only up to a limit.
12. In the given figure, which lines correctly indicates the equation S = CAz ?
c) Blue line (A)
d) Red line (B)
Explanation: In the above figure, the blue line (A) correctly indicates the equation S = CAz. It is a rectangular hyperbola. It tells us that within a region species richness increases but only up to a limit.
13. On a logarithmic scale, how is the equation S = CAz described?
a) log C / Z log A = log S
b) log C + Z log A = log S
c) log C x log ZA = log S
d) -Z log A – log C = log S
Explanation: On a logarithmic scale, S = CAz is described as log S = log C + Z log A. Here S = Species richness, A = Area explored, Z = slope of the line (regression coefficient), and C = Y-intercept.
14. In the given figure, if a log-log scale is considered, which line correctly indicates the equation S = CAz?
c) Blue line (A)
d) Red line (B)
Explanation: On a logarithmic scale, S = CAz is described as log S = log C + Z log A. Here S = Species richness, A = Area explored, Z = slope of the line (regression coefficient), and C = Y – intercept. The red line correctly indicates the logarithmic equation S = CAz.
15. In which range the value of Z lies?
a) 0.1 to 0.2
b) 1 to 2
c) 0.001 to 0.002
d) 10 to 20
Explanation: According to ecologists, the value of Z ranges from 0.1 to 0.2. It is regardless of the taxonomic region or group and the slopes of the regression line are mostly similar.
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