This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance-1”.
1. What, according to Medel, was responsible for the inheritance of specific traits?
Explanation: Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance. He attributed these traits being encoded by factors. Later studies showed that these factors are genes.
2. The structure of DNA by ______ received the Nobel Prize in 1962.
a) Maurice Wilkins
b) Rosalind Franklin
c) Francis Crick
d) Erwin Chargaff
Explanation: One of the central problems in molecular biology was unraveling the structure of DNA. This was finally postulated by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1953. For this, they shared a Nobel Prize in 1962.
3. What branch of biology focusses on the study of patterns of inheritance?
Explanation: Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with questions of inheritance. It uses techniques from various disciplines like Molecular biology, Cell biology, and many more to understand the basis of inheritance.
4. The process of transfer of characters from parents to offspring is referred to as ______
Explanation: Inheritance or Heredity is the process of transfer of information from parents/ancestors to offsprings. This gives rise to patterns that can be studied using the subject of genetics.
5. What determines the differences between the progeny and parents?
Explanation: Variation is the difference between individuals within a population. These arise between the progeny and parents/ancestors and form a backbone for natural selection to act on.
6. Sexual reproduction produces larger variations than asexual reproduction.
Explanation: Sexual reproduction involves two parents and the exchange of genetic material. Thus producing higher variations. Asexual reproduction is simply the replication of DNA and involves very low to almost no variation.
7. Which of the following approaches used by early humans is not an instance of exploitation of variation in population for the benefit of society?
a) Domestication of dog
b) Domestication of cow
c) Artificial selection of wheat as a crop
d) Invention of fire
Explanation: All the 4 options refer to approaches of early humans that have benefitted society. However, the domestication of dog and cow and the artificial selection of wheat as a crop have used the principle of variation and selection of traits best suitable for a particular task.
8. Who proposed the laws of inheritance in living organisms?
a) Gregor Mendel
b) James Watson
c) Francis Crick
d) Erwin Chargaff
Explanation: The laws of inheritance in living organisms were proposed by Gregor Mendel. He was the first person to apply the scientific method to understand patterns of inheritance. However, the importance of his work was not recognized until after his death.
9. What technique in plant biology was used by Gregor Mendel to derive the patterns of inheritance?
Explanation: Gregor Mendel carried out the hybridization of pea plants with specific characters and used manual counting to carry out estimates of factors over generations. This gave rise to the laws of inheritance, as we know today.
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