This set of Class 12 Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Plant Breeding-2” for Schools.
1. ___________ is the race of a species which is superior to all other existing varieties in one or more traits.
a) Improved variety
Explanation: Improved variety is the race of a species which is superior to all other existing varieties in one or more traits. A variety is the race of organisms of a species having the same genotype which differs from other groups of individuals of the same species in one or more traits. A trait or character is any morphological, anatomical, behavioural and biochemical feature.
2. Which of the following processes is not related to hybridisation?
b) Selection of parents
d) Crossing or artificial pollination
Explanation: Hybridisation is the crossing of two or more types of plants for bringing their traits together in the progeny. The various steps involved in hybridisation are Emasculation, Bagging, Crossing or Artificial Pollination, the Desired combination of variations, backcrossing.
3. Which of the following statements is true for Emasculation?
a) Removal of stigma and anther from a plant
b) Removal of male parts from the future female plant
c) Removal of female parts from the future male plant
d) Removal of all parts of the plant
Explanation: Emasculation is the removal of male parts from the future female plants in the young state so as to avoid chances of contamination from their pollen. In the case of unisexual plants, the male plants are not allowed to grow near the female plants.
4. The selection process in hybridisation is crucial to the success of the breeding objective and requires careful scientific evaluation of the progeny.
Explanation: Selection and testing of superior recombinants consist of selecting, among the progeny of the hybrids, those plants that have the desired character combination. The selection process is crucial to the success of the breeding objective and requires careful scientific evaluation of the progeny. This step yields plants that are superior to both of the parents.
5. Which of the following is not a method of evaluation of new crops?
b) Fertiliser application
c) Harvesting them
d) Growing them in research fields
Explanation: The newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield and other agronomic traits of quality, disease resistance, etc. This evaluation is done by growing these in the research fields and recording their performance under ideal fertiliser application, irrigation, and other crop management practices.
6. Which of the following scientists developed the semi-dwarf wheat variety?
a) Herbert Boyer
b) Stanley Cohen
c) M.S. Swaminathan
d) Norman E. Borlaug
Explanation: Nobel laureate Norman E. Borlaug, at International Centre for Wheat and Maize Improvement in Mexico, developed semi-dwarf wheat varieties.
7. HYV stands for ___________
a) High Yak Variety
b) Heat Yak Variety
c) High Yielding Varieties
d) Heat Yielding Varieties
Explanation: HYV stands for High Yielding Varieties. A green revolution occurred in India with the introduction of HYVs of wheat and rice from outside. Continually, new HVYs are bring added so that there is a continuous increase in crop output.
8. During which period, wheat production increased from 11 million tonnes to 75 million tonnes?
Explanation: During the period 1960-2000, wheat production increased from 11 million tonnes to 75 million tonnes while rice production went up from 35 million tonnes to 89.5 million tonnes. This was due to the development of semi-dwarf varieties of wheat and rice.
9. Which of the following is not a High Yielding Variety of wheat?
Explanation: In 1963, several HYVs of wheat such as Sonalika and Kalyan Sona, which were disease resistant were introduced all over the wheat-growing belt of India. Later better-yielding semi-dwarf varieties Jaya and Ratna were developed in India.
10. Which variety of sugarcane was originally grown in North India?
a) Saccharum barberi
b) Saccharum officinarum
c) Saccharum spontaneum
d) Kalyan sona
Explanation: Saccharum barberi was originally grown in North India, but had poor sugar content and yield. Tropical canes grown in South India Saccharum officinarum had thicker stems and higher sugar content but did not grow well in South India.
11. Semi-dwarf varieties were derived from IR-8 and Taichung Native-1.
Explanation: Semi-dwarf varieties were derived from IR-8, (developed at International Rich Research Institute, Philippines) and Taichung Native-1 (from Taiwan). The derivatives were introduced in 1966.
12. Which of the following is not a variety of Millet’s?
a) Hybrid maize
Explanation: Hybrid maize, jowar and bajra have been successfully developed in India. Hybrid breeding has led to the development of several high yielding varieties resistant to water stress.
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