This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 8 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Human Health and Disease – Autoimmunity”.
1. Which of the following is the cause of autoimmune diseases?
a) Immune System begins to attack its cells and tissues
b) Immune System starts producing cells and tissues
c) Immune System fails completely
d) Immune System produces WBCs in a huge number
Explanation: Autoimmune diseases are caused when the immune system starts attacking its cells and tissues. It is an abnormal immune reaction in which the body begins to reject substances and tissues of the body.
2. Which of the following is not an autoantigen?
b) Liver Cells
c) Acetylcholine receptors
Explanation: Amongst the following options, Brain is not an autoantigen. RBCs, Liver cells and Acetylcholine receptors are autoantigens of Chronic anaemia, Chronic Hepatitis and Myasthenia gravis respectively.
3. Which of the following is not an autoimmune disorder?
a) Rheumatoid Arthritis
b) Multiple sclerosis
d) Chronic Hepatitis
Explanation: Influenza is not an autoimmune disorder as it is caused by a virus, Myxovirus Influenzae. Rheumatoid arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic hepatitis are some of the autoimmune diseases.
4. Muscular dystrophy is an autoimmune disease while Myasthenia gravis is a genetic disorder.
Explanation: Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder that leads to the degeneration of muscles. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease which is caused by an autoantigen i.e. acetylcholine receptors of muscle cells.
5. In which of the following diseases the autoantigens are β-cells?
a) Myasthenia gravis
b) Insulin-dependent diabetes
c) Multiple sclerosis
d) Chronic anaemia
Explanation: In Insulin-dependent diabetes, the autoantigens are β-cells. Autoantigens are substances of the patient’s body that develop antigenic activity and hence destroy the patient’s body cells and tissues.
6. In Multiple sclerosis, the antibodies attack the ‘Node of Ranvier’ of the nerve cells.
Explanation: Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the myelin sheath of nerve cells. The symptoms involve loss of vision, pain, fatigue and impaired coordination of the mind and the body.
7. Which of the following is not an immune system disorder?
c) Genetic Disorders
d) Autoimmune Diseases
Explanation: Immune system is a multicomponent interactive system. Any defect in the system results in discomfort, disease or even death. There are three types of defects- Allergies, Immunodeficiency and Autoimmune disorders.
8. Which of the following is an autoimmune disease?
a) Addison’s disease
Explanation: Addison’s disease is an autoimmune disease. In this disease, antibodies attack the patient’s cells of adrenal glands that results in a deficiency of certain hormones. People with Addison’s disease are more likely than others to have other autoimmune diseases as well.
9. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding Rheumatoid arthritis?
a) It is an autoimmune disorder
b) It occurs only in old people
c) Inflammation of synovial fluid
d) Diagnosed by the presence of rheumatoid factor
Explanation: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that can occur at any age. The primary symptom is inflammation of the synovial membrane. If it is left untreated, then the membrane thickens and synovial fluid increases, exerting pressure that causes pain.
10. In Myasthenia gravis, antibodies start attacking the ______________
c) Acetylcholine receptors
d) Cortisol receptors
Explanation: In Myasthenia gravis, antibodies start attacking the acetylcholine receptors present on the sarcolemma, due to which the neurotransmitter i.e. acetylcholine could not bind to its receptors and hence, could not initiate nerve transmission. The skeletal muscles of the patient become weak and lead to paralysis.
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