Biology Questions and Answers – Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance-3

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This set of Biology Questions & Answers for Exams focuses on “Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance-3”.

1. The variations occurring due to meiosis are due to the independent segregation of chromosomes during Metaphase II.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The variation occurs due to the independent segregation of chromosomes during the Metaphase I. The Metaphase II plate does not lead to variation because all possible pairs are identical as they contain copies of the same chromatid.
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2. What is the pair of homologous chromosomes that line together during the meiosis I called?
a) Chromatid
b) Bivalent
c) Trivalent
d) Divalent
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The pair of chromosomes that line up during meiosis has two copies of each homologous chromosome. Hence it is called a bivalent.

3. Who interpreted by observing the independent segregation of chromosomes during meiosis, that the factors they carry would also separate independently?
a) Crick and Watson
b) Newton and Einstein
c) Sutton and Boveri
d) Franklin and Wilkins
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Sutton and Boveri had studied the segregation of chromosomes very closely by staining the cells and then developing a differential staining approach to visualize the pairs of chromosomes. To their surprise, this was very similar to the expectation of Mendel’s factors. Hence they made the conclusion that independent separation of chromosomes should lead to independent segregation of factors.
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4. What theory was coined by Sutton and Boveri?
a) Chromosomal theory of inheritance
b) Genetic theory of inheritance
c) Theory of Gravitation
d) Universal theory of everything
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Sutton and Boveri were the key players in the world of biology during the decade of 1900-1910. They observed chromosome movements and studied Mendel’s experiments. Based on these, they devised the chromosomal theory of inheritance.

5. Who was responsible for the theory of chromosomal inheritance?
a) Crick and Watson
b) Newton and Einstein
c) Sutton and Boveri
d) Franklin and Wilkins
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Sutton and Boveri were inspired by Mendel’s studies. With the advent of microscopy, they could observe the chromosomal movements during meiosis. Both of these led them to devise the chromosomal theory of inheritance.
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6. Which theory states that the segregation of one chromosomal pair during meiosis is independent of the other chromosomal pairs?
a) Chromosomal theory of inheritance
b) Genetic theory of inheritance
c) Theory of Gravitation
d) Universal theory of everything
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The chromosomal theory of inheritance was stated by Sutton and Boveri. It talks about the movement of chromosomal pairs independent of each other to reach the metaphase plate during Meiosis I.

7. What does the chromosomal theory of inheritance state?
a) Factors segregate independently of each other
b) Genes segregate independently of each other
c) Chromosomes segregate independently of each other
d) Cells divide independently of each other
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The chromosomal theory of inheritance was devised by the observations of the movements of chromosomes during the process of meiosis. According to this theory and the experiments that validate it, the chromosomes segregate independently of each other.
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8. Who was the pioneer of studies in fruit flies?
a) Morgan
b) Sutton
c) Mendel
d) Boveri
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Morgan, along with his students and colleagues, led to the setting up of fruit flies as the model organism. Today fruit fly is used widely for many studies.

9. What is the scientific name of fruit fly?
a) Felis domestica
b) Drosophila melanogaster
c) Drosophila domestica
d) Felis melanogaster
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Drosophila is the genus of fruit fly. There are many species found in this genus. Drosophila melanogaster has been widely accepted as the model organism.
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10. Thomas Morgan is known for his studies on ________
a) Felis domestica
b) Drosophila melanogaster
c) Drosophila domestica
d) Felis melanogaster
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Thomas Hunt Morgan, along with his colleagues, led to the establishment of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster as the model organism. It has been used for many studies that have potential applications to human society.

11. Who was responsible for the experimental verification of chromosomal theory of inheritance using fruit flies?
a) Morgan
b) Sutton
c) Mendel
d) Boveri
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Thomas Hunt Morgan and colleagues used fruit flies as their model organism. Many studies were done that verified the chromosomal theory of inheritance.

12. Which model organism was used to verify the chromosomal theory of inheritance?
a) Felis domestica
b) Drosophila melanogaster
c) Homo sapiens
d) Rattus rattus
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Drosophila melanogaster was used to verify the chromosomal theory of inheritance. This was done by Thomas Hunt Morgan and his colleagues. The reason for this model organism owes to its polytene chromosomes.

13. In fruit flies, females are larger in body size than males.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Fruit flies are well-studied model organisms. They have differences in body size in males and females. Females usually have a larger body size than males.

14. Which of the following organisms is easy to culture on artificial medium in a laboratory setting?
a) Felis domestica
b) Drosophila melanogaster
c) Homo sapiens
d) Canis familiaris
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Drosophila melanogaster are the fruit flies. They are small and hence can be easily cultured in lab settings on a synthetic medium.

15. Which of the following is not an advantage of using fruit flies?
a) Low life span
b) Violent organisms
c) Easy to culture
d) Large number of progeny
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The fruit flies are tiny and can be grown in lab settings. They have a shorter lifespan and produce many progenies after mating. This makes them a suitable model organism.

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