This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Biological Evolution – 2”.
1. Who is the author of the book “The Principle of population”?
a) Thomas Malthus
b) Charles Darwin
c) Hugo de Vries
d) Thomas Mathew
Explanation: Thomas Malthus is the author of the book Principles of population. According to him, the population grows geometrically whereas food grows only arithmetically. Charles Darwin was inspired by this theory.
2. The two key concepts branching descent and natural selection belong to ______ theory of evolution.
Explanation: The two key concepts of Darwin’s theory of evolution was branching descent and natural selection. Nature selects the fittest species. Adaptive ability is inherited and has a genetic basis. So, they were the two major concepts.
3. Lamarck was a _______ naturalist.
Explanation: Lamarck was a French naturalist born in 1744. He was famous for his book Philosophie Zoologique in 1809. He came up with the theory of inheritance of acquired characters.
4. Use and disuse theory was given by _______ to prove biological evolution.
a) Ernst Haeckel
b) Louis Pasteur
c) Charles Darwin
Explanation: According to Lamarck, the evolution of life forms had occurred but driven by use and disuse of organs. It was among Lamarck’s basic concepts. Using an organ continuously increases its development whereas disuse of it results in its degeneration.
5. Lamarck used _______ as examples of use and disuse theory.
Explanation: Giraffes were the main examples of Lamarck’s use and disuse theory. Giraffes continuously used their short necks to reach tall trees for leaves. So, this resulted in the elongation of their necks.
6. Which of the following were not among the basic concepts of Lamarckism?
a) Internal vital forces
b) Use and disuse of organs
c) Struggle for existence
d) Inheritance of acquired characters
Explanation: Struggle for existence was a concept of Darwin and not Lamarck’s. It states that every species competes with the same and other species for food, shelter, etc. to survive. Whereas, the remaining options support Lamarck’s concept of inheritance of acquired characters.
7. Fitness is the end result to get adapted and get selected by nature.
Explanation: Darwin stated that reproductive fitness is the main fitness required to survive in nature. Branching descent and natural selection are the main two concepts according to him. So, the end result to get adapted and get selected by nature is fitness.
8. During biological evolution, the first living organisms were _______
Explanation: Heterotrophs were first living organisms to evolve, as they originated among organic molecules and oxygen-free atmosphere. They were anaerobes capable of respiration in the absence of oxygen. They only depended on the existing molecule for their nutrition.
9. Which among the following are not included in the concept of inheritance of acquired characters?
a) Melanism in the peppered moth
b) Absence of limbs in snakes
c) The long neck of giraffes
d) Retractile claws of carnivorous animals
Explanation: Melanism in peppered moth is an example of adaptive radiation, and has no relation with this concept of Lamarck. Whereas the remaining options are included in the concept of inheritance of acquired characters.
10. From Lamarck’s theory, giraffes have long necks because ______
a) nature selected long trees
b) humans preferred only long-necked ones
c) of the sudden change of short to long necks
d) stretching of necks over many years by short-necked ones
Explanation: According to Lamarck, giraffes were like horses. They only had a small neck and forelimbs. They lived in places where surface vegetation as very poor. So, they had to stretch their necks in order to gain food from long trees. Hence, they acquired long necks.
11. Which of the following is correctly matched?
a) Darwin – Theory of myogenesis
b) Pasteur – Theory of pasteurization
c) Weismann – Theory of continuity of germplasm
d) Hugo de Vries – Use and disuse theory
Explanation: August Weismann opposed Lamarck’s theory of inheritance of acquired characters. He put forward this theory of germplasm. It states that characters related to the germ cells are only inherited, whereas the somatic cells are not.
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