Biology Questions and Answers – Molecular Basis of Inheritance – Translation

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This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Molecular Basis of Inheritance – Translation”.

1. What is the process of polymerisation of polypeptides to amino acids known as?
a) Transcription
b) Translation
c) Reverse transcription
d) Reverse translation
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: There are certain sequences for the bases present in the mRNA. The order and sequence of the amino acids are defined by them. And so, transcription is a process where the polymerisation of the polypeptide leads to the formation of amino acids.
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2. What is the process of activation of amino acids in the presence of ATP and its linkage to their cognate tRNA known as?
a) Charging of tRNA
b) Charging of ATP
c) Aminoacetylation of tRNA
d) Aminoacetylation of ATP
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In order to form a peptide bond, a certain quantity of energy is required. The first phase in this process is known as charging of tRNA. It is also known as Aminoacylation of tRNA. In this process, the amino acids are activated in the presence of ATP and are linked to their cognate tRNA.

3. The presence of a catalyst would decrease the rate of formation of a peptide bond.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: When two molecules of charged tRNAs are brought close to one another, the formation of a peptide bond between these two molecules will be highly favoured (energetically). So the presence of a catalyst would increase the rate of peptide bond formation.
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4. Which of the following cell organelle is responsible for the synthesis of proteins?
a) Lysosomes
b) Mitochondria
c) Nucleus
d) Ribosomes
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Lysosomes help in the break down and digestion of the worn out or dead cell components. Mitochondria is known as the power house of the cell for the production of ATP molecules. Nucleus helps in carrying the information from one generation to the next generation. Ribosomes help in the synthesis of proteins.

5. How many types of proteins are present inside a single ribosome?
a) 40
b) 60
c) 80
d) 100
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Ribosomes consists of structural RNAs and they also possess about 80 different types of proteins in them. A ribosome can either be in its active state or inactive state. While it is in its inactive state, it will exist as 2 subunits.
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6. What happens when the small subunit of the ribosome encounters an mRNA?
a) Separation of the small and the larger subunit of the ribosome
b) Translation of the central dogma of DNA
c) Joining of the small and the larger subunit of the ribosome
d) Transcription of the central dogma of DNA
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The central dogma of DNA occurs in its 2 stages. They are transcription and translation. When the small subunit of the ribosome encounters an mRNA, the process of translation commences. The process of translation from the mRNA to the proteins occur.

7. Which of the following is the start codon?
a) UAA
b) UAG
c) AUG
d) UGA
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: An amino acid usually possesses different codons. It also has a start and a stop codon. The stop codons are UAA, UAG and UGA. The start codon is AUG.
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8. Where are the untranslated regions (UTRs) present?
a) At both the 5’ and the 3’ ends
b) At only the 5’ end
c) At only the 3’ end
d) Outer to the 5’ and the 3’ end
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The untranslated regions (UTRs) are the additional sequences of the mRNA which aren’t translated during the process of translation into proteins. This region is present at both the 5’ and the 3’ end. They are required so that an efficient process of translation occurs.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Biology – Class 12.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter