Biology Questions and Answers – Ecosystem – Structure and Function – 1

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This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Ecosystem – Structure and Function – 1”.

1. What can be visualized as a functional unit of nature?
a) Humans
b) Ecosystem
c) Vehicles
d) Plants
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: An ecosystem consists of biotic and abiotic components that interact within a system. The components are linked together with various nutrient cycles and energy flows. Thus it can be visualized as a functional unit of nature.
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2. What are the two basic categories of an ecosystem?
a) Aquatic and terrestrial
b) Aquatic and forest
c) Ponds and lakes
d) Rivers and forests
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The terrestrial and aquatic are two basic categories of an ecosystem. Deserts, forests, and grasslands are included in the terrestrial ecosystems; while, ponds, lakes, rivers, wetlands, and estuary are included in the aquatic ecosystems.

3. What is the characteristic of each type of ecosystem?
a) Interaction between living things
b) Interaction between biotic and abiotic factors
c) Interaction between abiotic factors
d) Fights among individuals
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The characteristic of each type of ecosystem is the interaction between biotic and abiotic factors. The components are linked together with various nutrient cycles and energy flows. Thus it can be visualized as a functional unit of nature.
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4. What is the horizontal distribution of different species occupying different levels?
a) Stratification
b) Niche
c) Ecosystem
d) Zonation
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The horizontal distribution of different species occupying different levels is called zonation. It is a spatial pattern occurring horizontally along the ground. The zones are according to such parameters such as altitude or depth.

5. What is the spatial pattern that occurs vertically called?
a) Zonation
b) Ecosystem
c) Stratification
d) Niche
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The spatial pattern that occurs vertically is called stratification. It is the vertical distribution of species determined by the height of the organisms. For example trees, herbs, shrubs, and grasses occupying top, middle and bottom strata respectively.
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6. In which of the following aspect do the components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit?
a) Community
b) Productivity
c) Speciation
d) Niche
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit when the aspect is productivity. Productivity is the amount of generation organic matter i.e. biomass in a unit time in that ecosystem.

7. In which of the following aspect do the components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit?
a) Speciation
b) Community
c) Niche
d) Decomposition
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit when the aspect is decomposition. It is a part of the nutrient cycle in which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
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8. In which of the following aspect do the components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit?
a) Community
b) Speciation
c) Energy flow
d) Niche
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit when the aspect is energy flow. It is the calorific amount of energy that moves from the sun and up to each subsequent level of the food chain in an environment.

9. In which of the following aspect do the components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit?
a) Niche
b) Community
c) Speciation
d) Nutrient cycle
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit when the aspect is nutrient cycling. It is the flux and exchange of nutrients (organic and inorganic matter) back into the production of living matter.
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10. Which of the following is an abiotic component of a pond?
a) Bacteria
b) Fungi
c) Water
d) Fishes
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Water is an abiotic component of a pond ecosystem. Water is essential for the growth and transfer of gases, nutrients within the organisms. The pond is an example of a fresh-water ecosystem.

11. Which of the following climatic conditions regulate the functioning of a pond?
a) Fishes
b) Temperature
c) Plants
d) Planktons
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Various climatic conditions such as temperature, sunlight, day-length regulate the rate of the functioning of a pond. Pond ecosystem performs all the functions of any ecosystem i.e., conversion of inorganic into organic material with the help of energy.

12. Which of the following is an autotrophic component of a pond?
a) Fungi
b) Fishes
c) Submerged plants
d) Water
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The submerged, floating, and marginal plants found at the edges are autotrophic components of a pond. These are the organisms (producers) that can produce their own food using light, water, carbon dioxide, or other chemicals.

13. Which of the following is an autotrophic component of a pond?
a) Fungi
b) Phytoplankton
c) Water
d) Fishes
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The phytoplanktons are the autotrophic component of a pond. These are microscopic algae and primary producers that provide food for creatures including zooplankton, fishes, snails, shrimps, etc.

14. Which of the following is the consumer of a pond ecosystem?
a) Fungi
b) Sunlight
c) Water
d) Zooplankton
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The zooplankton is the consumer of a pond ecosystem. It is a microscopic, heterotrophic organism that feeds on phytoplankton. It is found in the free-swimming and bottom-dwelling forms.

15. Which of the following is the decomposer of a pond ecosystem?
a) Fungi
b) Zooplankton
c) Phytoplankton
d) Aquatic plants
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The fungi are decomposers of a pond ecosystem. Fungi are heterotrophic, unicellular eukaryotes that lack chloroplasts. They decompose the dead and decaying matter and provide essential nutrients to the producers.

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