Biology Questions and Answers – Human Health and Disease – Vaccination and Immunisation

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This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Human Health and Disease – Vaccination and Immunisation”.

1. Who discovered the technique of preparing vaccine from attenuated pathogen and in which year?
a) Edward Jenner, 1796
b) Louis Pasteur, 1879
c) Robert Downey, 1856
d) Von Behring, 1950
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Louis Pasteur discovered the technique of preparing vaccine from an attenuated pathogen in 1879. This was the first true vaccine consisting of weakened micro-organisms against the disease chicken cholera.
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2. The term vaccine was introduced by ________
a) Edward Jenner
b) Robert Koch
c) Louis Pasteur
d) Von Behring
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The term vaccine was coined by Edward Jenner. A vaccine is a suspension or extract of weakened pathogens which when injected into a healthy person provides active acquired immunity to the disease.

3. Jenner prepared the vaccine of smallpox by using _______
a) The attenuated pathogen of smallpox
b) The killed pathogen of smallpox
c) The attenuated pathogen of Cowpox
d) Pathogens from Cowpox pustule
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Edward Jenner prepared his first vaccine of smallpox by using pathogens from cow pustule. He injected fluid from the sore of milkmaid suffering from cowpox into the body of a healthy boy which did not later catch smallpox.
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4. Why are the vaccines produced through genetic engineering considered as safe?
a) They have only the coat of pathogen
b) They are attenuated form of a pathogen
c) They have killed form of pathogens
d) They have all the genes of pathogens
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The vaccines produced through genetic engineering are considered safe because they contain antigen only from the coat of pathogen which is almost harmless.

5. What is the basic principle of immunisation and vaccination?
a) It is based on the number of B and T lymphocytes
b) It is based on the property of memory of the immune system
c) It is based on antigen-antibody interactions
d) It is based upon the number of white blood cells
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The basic principle of immunisation or vaccination is based on the property of memory of the immune system. When an immunised person is attacked by the pathogen, the existing bodies immediately attack the antigen while the memory T and B cells give rise to a massive crop of lymphocytes and antibodies.
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6. Toxoids are toxins usually inactivated by formalin which retain their antigenic property.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Toxoids are toxins usually inactivated by formalin which retain their antigenic property. A toxoid stimulates the antitoxin formation and protects the body from exotoxins= producing organisms.

7. ATS inoculation soon after injury that brings contact with soiled objects give protection against the possible attack of __________
a) Poliomyelitis
b) AIDS
c) Tetanus
d) Influenza
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: ATS inoculation soon after injury that brings contact with soiled objects give protection against the possible attack of tetanus. Wounds and cutes or surgical instruments coming in contact with the road dust may cause the entry of spores into the body. Injection of ATS within 24 hours of injury gives passive immunity to the individual.
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8. A disease against which vaccination is resorted only during epidemics is ___________
a) Diarrhoea
b) Tuberculosis
c) AIDS
d) Cholera
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: A disease against which vaccination resorts only during epidemics is Cholera. Vaccination against cholera gives immunity for only a few months. It is useful, especially during epidemics. Chlorination or ozone treatment of water, boiled water, disinfected food are measures essential for prevention.

9. On which of the following discoveries, Von Behring was awarded the noble prize?
a) For discovering passive immunity
b) For discovering active immunity
c) For discovering and making the first true vaccine
d) For discovering methods to protect people from smallpox
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Von Behring was awarded the noble prize for his work on passive immunity. He is also regarded as the Father of Passive immunity.
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10. Emil Von Behring injected some toxoid serum into the patient suffering from AIDS to discover passive immunity.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Emil Von Behring injected some toxoid serum into the patient suffering from Diphtheria. He withdrew some blood from an infected diphtheria sheep and the separated the serum by allowing it to clot. He injected this serum into the patient suffering from Diphtheria. Within a few hours, she began to recover dramatically.

11. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding Vaccination and Immunisation?
a) Immunisation is the phenomena of increasing specific antibody production
b) Vaccination is the process of inoculation of harmless antigenic material into the healthy person
c) A single vaccination gives adequate immunity and lasts lifelong
d) Immunisation is carried out through vaccination and injection of antiserum
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A single vaccination gives adequate immunity and lasts lifelong is the incorrect statement. It may not give adequate immunity. Therefore, 2-3 booster doses of vaccine are administered later on at specific intervals.

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