This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Biotechnology – Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology – 1”.
1. The nucleic acid in most of the organisms is ______
Explanation: Most of the organisms consist of DNA as their genetic material. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the hereditary material of most of the humans and almost all animals (exception-some viruses). It is double-stranded and is more stable than RNA.
2. The bacterial cells can be lysed by using ______ enzyme.
Explanation: The enzyme used for breaking or lysis of bacterial cells is lysozyme. It helps in the breakdown of carbohydrates found in a bacterial cell. It is also found in tears.
3. The plant cells can be lysed by using ______ enzyme.
Explanation: Cellulase is the enzyme used for the lysis of plant cells. It catalyzes cellulolysis, which is the breakdown of cellulose. Cellulase acts on the glycosidic linkages of cellulose. Cellulose is mostly found in plant cell walls along with other components.
4. The fungal cells can be lysed by using ______ enzyme.
Explanation: The fungal cell wall consists of chitin as the major component. Chitinase is the enzyme used for the breakdown of chitin. This enzyme breaks down the glycosidic bonds present in the chitin. This enzyme is usually produced by higher plants for their protection.
5. The enzyme which cleaves DNA is _______
Explanation: The enzyme which cleaves DNA is DNase. It catalyzes the breakdown of phosphodiester linkages of DNA. It is a type of endonuclease. Ligases are the enzymes used in the joining of two strands.
6. The restriction enzyme needs to be in _____ form to cut the DNA.
Explanation: The restriction enzyme needs to be in pure form to cut the DNA. The restriction enzymes are molecular scissors that cleave the DNA at specific recognition sites. Restriction enzymes are also known as restriction endonucleases or restrictase.
7. Which macromolecules are present along with DNA within the cell?
c) Vectors, organelles
d) Lipids, polysaccharides
Explanation: Along with DNA the cell also consists of various macromolecules such as lipids, RNA, polysaccharides. A macromolecule is a large molecule that is formed by polymerization of monomers. A macromolecule consists of more than 100 monomers.
8. ______ is a monomer of lipids.
a) Amino acid
c) Fatty acids
Explanation: Lipid is a macromolecule made up of fatty acids and glycerol. A fatty acid consists of carboxylic acid along with an aliphatic chain. This chain can be saturated (single bond) or unsaturated (double or triple bonds).
9. ______ is the monomer of proteins.
b) Fatty acids
c) Amino acid
Explanation: Amino acid is the monomer of proteins. These are organic compounds that join together to form peptides which further join together to form proteins. Two amino acids join together with the help of a peptide bond.
10. _______ is the building block of carbohydrates.
b) Amino acid
d) Fatty acids
Explanation: Carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides. It is the sugar that cannot be hydrolyzed further. They come together to form a disaccharide which further goes on forming a carbohydrate. They are the major source of energy for living beings.
11. The enzyme which cleaves RNA is _______
Explanation: Ribonuclease is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the cleavage of RNA. RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. It is also known as RNase. It also cleaves the DNA-RNA hybrids.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Biology – Class 12.
To practice all areas of Biology, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.
Participate in the Sanfoundry Certification contest to get free Certificate of Merit. Join our social networks below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs!