Biology Questions and Answers – Class 12

Biology Class 12 Questions and Answers

Our 1000+ “Biology – Class 12” (along with 1000+ “Biology – Class 11”) questions and answers focuses on all areas of Biology subject covering 200+ topics in Biology. One can read Class 11 Here. These topics are chosen from a collection of most authoritative and best reference books on Biology. One should spend 1 hour daily for 2-3 months to learn and assimilate Biology comprehensively. This way of systematic learning will prepare anyone easily towards Biology interviews, online tests, examinations and certifications.


– 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions & Answers in Biology with explanations
– Every MCQ set focuses on a specific topic in Biology Subject


Who should Practice these Biology Questions?
– Anyone wishing to sharpen their knowledge of Class 12 – Biology Subject
– Anyone preparing for school test and many other online/Offline Tests/Contests in Biology
– Anyone preparing for NEET, MBBS, AIIMS, BDS-Dental, Pharmacy & Medical Entrance Exams in Biology
– Anyone preparing for various Central board examinations in Biology namely CBSE, ICSE, IGCSE, and NIOS Board
– Anyone preparing for various State board examinations in Biology such as PUC, Intermediate exams, etc
– Anyone preparing for entrance examinations and other competitive examinations such as NTSE, Olympiad, etc
– All – High School Students and Freshers

Here’s list of Questions & Answers on Biology – Class 12 Subject covering 100+ topics:

1. Questions & Answers on Reproduction in Organisms

The section contains questions and answers on organisms reproduction, asexual reproduction types, sexual and asexual reproduction, fertilisation events, pre and post fertilisation events in sexual reproduction.

Reproduction in Organisms
Asexual Reproduction
Different Types of Asexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
Pre-Fertilisation Events in Sexual Reproduction
Fertilisation Events in Sexual Reproduction
Post-Fertilisation Events in Sexual Reproduction

2. Questions on Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

The section contains questions on flowering plants sexual reproduction, microsporangium and pistil structure, pollen grain structure and its properties, megasporangium and embryo sac structure, abiotic and biotic agents of pollination, pollen-pistil interaction, double fertilisation, endosperm, monocot and dicot embryo structures, seed structure, apomixis and polyembryony.

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Structure of Stamen
Structure of Microsporangium
Structure of a Pollen Grain
Properties of Pollen Grains
Structure of Pistil
Structure of Megasporangium
Structure of Embryo Sac
Pollination and Types of Pollination
Abiotic Agents of Pollination
Biotic Agents of Pollination
Pollen-Pistil Interaction
Double Fertilisation
Structure of Endosperm
Structure of Monocot and Dicot Embryo
Structure of Seed
Apomixis and Polyembryony

3. Questions & Answers on Human Reproduction


The section contains questions and answers on male and female reproductive system, male accessory ducts and glands, male and female external genitalia, mammary gland structure, spermatogenesis, sperm and ovary structures, oogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertilisation, implantation, parturition, lactation, pregnancy and embryonic development.

The Male Reproductive System
The Male Accessory Ducts and Glands
The Male External Genitalia
The Female Reproductive System
The Female External Genitalia
Structure of a Mammary Gland
Structure of a Sperm
Structure of an Ovary
Menstrual Cycle – 1
Menstrual Cycle – 2
Pregnancy and Embryonic Development – 1
Pregnancy and Embryonic Development – 2
Parturition and Lactation

4. Questions on Reproductive Health

The section contains questions on reproductive health problems and strategies, population stabilisation, natural birth control methods, birth control barrier methods, intrauterine devices, oral and injectable contraceptives, contraception surgical methods, contraceptive methods side effects, pregnancy medical termination, infertility and assisted reproductive technologies.

Reproductive Health Problems and Strategies
Population Stabilisation
Natural Birth Control Methods
Barrier Methods of Birth Control
Intrauterine Devices
Oral Contraceptives
Injectable Contraceptives and Implants
Surgical Methods of Contraception
Side Effects of Contraceptive Methods
Medical Termination of Pregnancy
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Assisted Reproductive Technologies

5. Questions & Answers on Principles of Inheritance and Variation

The section contains questions and answers on inheritance mendels laws, one gene and two genes inheritance, punnett square, incomplete dominance and co-dominance, multiple allelism, inheritance chromosomal theory, linkage and recombination principles, polygenic inheritance, pleiotropy, sex determination, mutation, pedigree analysis, mendelian and chromosomal disorders.

Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance-1
Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance-2
Inheritance of One Gene-1
Inheritance of One Gene-2
Punnett Square-1
Punnett Square-2
Incomplete Dominance
Multiple Allelism
Inheritance of Two Genes-1
Inheritance of Two Genes-2
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance-1
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance-2
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance-3
Linkage and Recombination-1
Linkage and Recombination-2
Polygenic Inheritance
Sex Determination
Pedigree Analysis
Mendelian Disorders
Chromosomal Disorders

6. Questions on Molecular Basis of Inheritance

The section contains questions on dna, polynucleotide chain structure, dna helix packaging, genetic material search and properties, dna replication experimental proof, transcription basics, rna types and transcription process in prokaryotes, genetic code, mutations, trna adapter molecule, translation, gene expression regulation, lac operon, human genome project, dna fingerprinting, hgp methodologies and sailent features.

Structure of a Polynucleotide Chain
Packaging of DNA Helix
The Search for Genetic Material
The Genetic Material is DNA
Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA)
The Experimental Proof of Replication of DNA
The Machinery and the Enzymes for Replication of DNA
Transcription Basics
Transcription Unit and the Gene
Types of RNA and Process of Transcription in Prokaryotes
Process of Transcription in Eukaryotes
Genetic Code
Mutations and Genetic Code
tRNA- the Adapter Molecule
Regulation of Gene Expression
Lac operon
Human Genome Project
Methodologies of HGP
Salient Features of HGP
DNA Fingerprinting

7. Questions & Answers on Evolution

The section contains questions and answers on life origin, life forms-a theory evolution, adaptive radiation, evolution evidences, biological evolution, hardy weinberg principle, evolution mechanism, plants evolution, man origin and evolution.

Origin of Life – 1
Origin of Life – 2
Origin of Life – 3
Evolution of Life Forms-A Theory
Evidences for Evolution
Adaptive Radiation
Biological Evolution – 1
Biological Evolution – 2
Mechanism of Evolution
Hardy-Weinberg Principle-1
Hardy-Weinberg Principle-2
A Brief Account of Evolution of Plants
A Brief Account of Evolution of Animals
Origin and Evolution of Man – 1
Origin and Evolution of Man – 2
Origin and Evolution of Man – 3
Origin and Evolution of Man – 4
Origin and Evolution of Man – 5
Origin and Evolution of Man – 6

8. Questions on Human Health and Disease


The section contains questions on human health and diseases, bacterial and viral diseases in humans, protozoan and helminthic diseases, fungal and venereal diseases in humans, innate and acquired immunity, humoral immunity, active and passive immunity, vaccination and immunisation, allergies, autoimmunity, body immune system, aids, cancer causes and types, cancer detection and diagnosis, drugs and alcohol abuse.

Human Health and Diseases
Bacterial Diseases in Humans-1
Bacterial Diseases in Humans-2
Viral Diseases in Humans-1
Viral Diseases in Humans-2
Protozoan Diseases in Humans
Helminthic Diseases in Humans-1
Helminthic Diseases in Humans-2
Fungal Diseases in Humans
Venereal Diseases in Humans-1
Venereal Diseases in Humans-2
Innate and Acquired Immunity
Humoral Immunity-1
Humoral Immunity-2
Cell Mediated Immunity
Active and Passive Immunity
Vaccination and Immunisation
Immune System in the Body
Causes of Cancer
Types of Cancer
Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse-1
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse-2
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse-3
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse-4
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse-5
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse-6
Drugs and Alcohol Abuse-7

9. Questions & Answers on Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

The section contains questions and answers on animal husbandry, dairy farm and poultry farm management, animal breeding, controlled breeding experiments, apiculture, pisciculture, sericulture, animals viral and bacterial diseases, plant breeding, parasitic and protozoan diseases in animals, plant tissue culture, single cell protein, plant diseases and their controls, plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes.

Animal Husbandry and Dairy Farm Management-1
Animal Husbandry and Dairy Farm Management-2
Poultry Farm Management
Animal Breeding
Controlled Breeding Experiments
Viral Diseases in Animals
Bacterial Diseases in Animals
Parasitic and Protozoan Diseases in Animals
Plant Breeding-1
Plant Breeding-2
Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests and for Improved Food Quality
Plant Tissue Culture
Single Cell Protein
Plant Diseases and their Control
Plant Diseases caused by Viruses and Bacteria
Plant Diseases caused by Fungi and Nematodes

10. Questions on Microbes in Human Welfare

The section contains questions on bioenergy, microbes, microbes in household and industrial products, sewage treatment microbes, microbes in biogas production and biocontrol agents.

Microbes in Household Products-1
Microbes in Household Products-2
Microbes in Industrial Products-1
Microbes in Industrial Products-2
Microbes in Industrial Products-3
Microbes in Industrial Products-4
Microbes in Sewage Treatment
Microbes in Production of Biogas
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
Microbes as Biofertilizers

11. Questions & Answers on Biotechnology Principles and Processes

The section contains questions and answers on biotechnology principles, recombinant dna technology processes, recombinant dna technology tools like restriction enzymes, cloning vectors and competent host.

Principles of Biotechnology
Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology: Restriction Enzymes
Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology: Cloning Vectors
Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology: Competent Host
Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology – 1
Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology – 2
Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology – 3

12. Questions on Biotechnology and its Applications

The section contains questions on agriculture biotechnological applications, bt cotton, pest resistant plants, medicine biotechnological applications like genetically engineered insulin, gene therapy and molecular diagnosis, transgenic animals and ethical issues.

Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
Bt Cotton
Pest Resistant Plants – 1
Pest Resistant Plants – 2
Biotechnological Applications in Medicine: Genetically Engineered Insulin
Biotechnological Applications in Medicine: Gene Therapy
Biotechnological Applications in Medicine: Molecular Diagnosis – 1
Biotechnological Applications in Medicine: Molecular Diagnosis – 2
Transgenic Animals – 1
Transgenic Animals – 2
Transgenic Animals – 3
Ethical Issues – 1
Ethical Issues – 2

13. Questions & Answers on Organisms and Populations


The section contains questions and answers on organism and its environment, major abiotic factors, adaptations, abiotic factors responses, growth models, population attributes, growth and interactions.

Organism and its Environment – 1
Organism and its Environment – 2
Major Abiotic Factors – 1
Major Abiotic Factors – 2
Responses to Abiotic Factors – 1
Responses to Abiotic Factors – 2
Adaptations – 1
Adaptations – 2
Population Attributes – 1
Population Attributes – 2
Population Growth – 1
Population Growth – 2
Population Growth – 3
Growth Models – 1
Growth Models – 2
Population Interactions-1
Population Interactions-2
Population Interactions-3
Population Interactions-4

14. Questions on Ecosystem

The sections covers questions on ecosystem structure and function, productivity, decomposition, energy flow, ecological pyramids and succession, hydrarch and xerarch succession, nutrient cycling, ecosystem services, carbon and phosphorus cycles.

Ecosystem – Structure and Function – 1
Ecosystem – Structure and Function – 2
Productivity – 1
Productivity – 2
Decomposition – 1
Decomposition – 2
Energy Flow – 1
Energy Flow – 2
Energy Flow – 3
Energy Flow – 4
Energy Flow – 5
Ecological Pyramids – 1
Ecological Pyramids – 2
Ecological Pyramids – 3
Ecological Succession – 1
Ecological Succession – 2
Hydrarch Succession
Xerarch Succession
Nutrient Cycling
Carbon Cycle
Phosphorus Cycle
Ecosystem Services

15. Questions & Answers on Biodiversity and Conservation

The section contains questions and answers on biodiversity basics and patterns, spices number on earth, species diversity importance, biodiversity loss and causes, biodiversity conservation, in-situ and ex-situ conservations.

Biodiversity Basics
Number of Species on Earth and in India
Patterns of Biodiversity
Importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem
Loss of Biodiversity
Causes of Biodiversity Losses
Biodiversity Conservation
In-situ and Ex-situ Conservation

16. Questions on Environmental Issues

The section contains questions on air and water pollution and its control, biomagnification, eutrophication, solid wastes, agro chemicals and its effects, radioactive wastes, greenhouse effect, global warming, stratosphere ozone depletion and deforestation.

Air Pollution and its Control
Water Pollution and its Control – 1
Water Pollution and its Control – 2
Biomagnification and Eutrophication
Solid Wastes
Agro-Chemicals and their Effects
Radioactive Wastes
Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
If you would like to learn Biology thoroughly, you should attempt to work on the complete set of questions and answers mentioned above. It will immensely help anyone trying to crack an exam or an interview.

Wish you the best in your endeavor to learn and master Biology!

Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn