This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Human Health and Disease – Types of Cancer”.
1. Which of the following is the most common form of cancer?
Explanation: Carcinoma is the most common form of cancer. It is a cancer of epithelial tissues and their derivatives like skin, mucous membrane, lungs, breast, pancreas, stomach etc.
2. Which of the following cancers is derived from mesodermal tissues?
c) Breast Cancer
Explanation: Sarcoma is the cancer of primitive mesodermal tissue like connective tissue, bone, muscle, lymph nodes, etc. The occurrence of these types of cancer is very rare.
3. In which of the following cancers, there is a tremendous increase in the number of WBCs?
Explanation: Leukaemia is a malignancy where there is an unwanted and uncontrolled increase in White blood corpuscles and immature or myeloid stem cells. These WBCs infiltrate the bone marrow, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and other organs causing damage and increase in their size.
4. Which of the following cancers does not come under the category of Sarcoma?
c) Myelocytic Leukaemia
Explanation: Sarcoma is the cancer of organs derived from mesoderm. Depending upon the tissue involved, sarcoma is of several types, e.g., lymphoma (involving lymph vessels), lipoma (Adipose tissue), malignant reticulosis, angiosarcoma (blood vessels) etc.
5. Which of the following cancers is commonly known as Bone Cancer?
Explanation: Osteoma is commonly called as Bone Cancer. It is a type of sarcoma where some cells undergo uncontrolled division and form a small mass of cells over the bone. These small mass of cells may even replace the healthy bone tissue.
6. Which of the following chromosomes are involved in myelocytic leukaemia?
a) 7th and 20th
b) 9th and 22nd
c) 1st and 2nd
d) 3rd and 4th
Explanation: In myelocytic leukaemia, 9th and 22nd chromosomes bring their jumping genes together which results in the rearrangement of genetic material between them. It leads to the degeneration of erythroblastic tissue of bone marrow. There is bleeding at different places in the body.
7. The most common form of cancer that affects Indian men is ____________
a) mouth and throat cancer
b) lung cancer
c) pancreatic cancer
d) bone cancer
Explanation: The most common form of cancer that affects Indian men is Mouth and Throat Cancer. India has one-third of Mouth and Throat Cancer cases in the world. Oral or Mouth Cancer accounts for about 30% of all cancers in India.
8. Breast Cancer is a type of Sarcoma.
Explanation: Breast Cancer is a type of Carcinoma where there is an abnormal and uncontrolled division of cells in the breast. Its symptoms include a lump in the breast, mucous or bloody discharge from the lumps or from the nipples.
9. The following diagram is a representation of __________
a) Blood Vessels
b) Lymph nodes
c) Blood Route
d) Various Organs of the body
Explanation: The given diagram is a representation of Lymph nodes. The lymph nodes are small solid structures located at different points along with the lymphatic system. They serve to trap the micro-organisms or other antigens, which happen to get into the lymph and tissue fluid.
10. Pituitary Cancer is a type of ___________
Explanation: Pituitary Cancer is a type of Adenoma. It is cancer caused by the excessive growth of glandular epithelium. Symptoms include irregular menstruation, vision disorders, headache etc.
11. Which of the following is the cancer of Glial cells of CNS?
Explanation: Glioma is the cancer of Glial cells of CNS. Melanoma, Adenoma and Lymphoma are the cancers of pigment cells of the skin, glands and lymphatic tissue respectively.
12. Which of the following are the most common forms of cancers in Indian women?
a) Breast and Cervical Cancer
b) Thyroid Cancer
c) Lung Cancer
d) Oral Cancer
Explanation: The most common form of cancer in Indian females is Breast and Cervical cancer. One woman dies of cervical cancer every 8 minutes in India. For every 2 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, one woman dies of it in India.
13. Leukaemia is a type of non-tumorous cancer.
Explanation: Leukaemia is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow. It is non-tumorous cancer which is caused by the uncontrolled division of blood cells. They get accumulated in the bloodstream and thus occupy more space and hence stop the white blood cells from functioning normally.
14. Which of the following is not a symptom of Lymphoma?
a) Swollen Lymph Nodes
b) Weight Loss
Explanation: Lymphoma is the cancer of lymphoid tissue which can occur in lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow and other lymphoid structures. Its symptoms include Swollen lymph nodes, Weight Loss, fatigue, Breathlessness, loss of appetite etc.
15. The vagina is a target tissue for which of the following chemical carcinogens?
c) Diethylstilboestrol (DES)
d) Cadmium Oxide
Explanation: Vagina is the target tissue for Diethylstilboestrol (DES). Asbestos, Soot and Cadmium Oxide are the chemical carcinogens for Lungs, Skin and Prostate gland respectively.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Biology – Class 12.
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