This set of Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Biodiversity Basics”.
1. The Earth consists of how many ant species?
Explanation: Ants are eusocial (highly social) insects. They live together in organized colonies. There are approximately 20,000 species of ants on the Earth.
2. How many species of beetles are present on the Earth?
Explanation: Beetles are a group of winged insects and eat almost everything. They are prominent decomposers, and there are approximately 3,00,000 species of beetles on the Earth.
3. How many species of fishes are present on Earth?
Explanation: Fishes are limbless cold-blooded vertebrate gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals. They commonly have fins and are covered with scales. There are approximately 28,000 species of fishes on Earth.
4. How many species of orchids are present on Earth?
Explanation: An orchid growing on epiphyte is an example of commensalism. Epiphytes grow on trees for air and sunlight while the tree is not harmed due to its presence. Another epiphyte growing on trees is a fern. There are approximately 20,000 species of orchids on Earth.
5. Which of the following statements is true?
a) Diversity exists only at the species level
b) Diversity exists only at the macromolecular level
c) Diversity exists at all levels of biological organization
d) Diversity exists at the genetic level only
Explanation: Biodiversity is the variety and variability of all the levels of biological organization (plant and animal life) on Earth. The diversity exists not only at the genetic level but at all levels of biological organization.
6. Who popularized the term biodiversity?
a) Rudolf Virchow
b) Edward Wilson
c) Gregor Mendel
d) Robert Koch
Explanation: Edward Wilson popularized the term biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variety and variability of all the levels of biological organization (plant and animal life) on Earth.
7. What can a single species show?
a) No variation at the genetic level
b) No diversity at the genetic level
c) Low diversity at the genetic level
d) High diversity at the genetic level
Explanation: Genetic diversity is important among various levels of biodiversity. High genetic diversity can be seen only in a single species.
8. What is the feature of the biosphere?
a) No diversity
d) Negligible diversity
Explanation: Biosphere is the total surface and atmosphere integrating all living beings and their relationships of the Earth. The biosphere is heterogeneous in nature and shows immense diversity. Thus heterogeneity is a feature of the biosphere.
9. How many strains of rice does India have?
Explanation: India consists of approximately 50,000 strains of rice. Rice is an edible starchy cereal grain, seed of the grass species Oryza. Rice is said to be the most widely consumed staple food.
10. How many varieties of mango does India have?
Explanation: Mango is an edible stone fruit (drupe) belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera. They grow mostly in tropical areas. India consists of approximately more than 1,000 varieties of mango.
11. What is the feature of the biosphere?
a) No diversity
b) Species diversity
c) Low diversity
d) Negligible diversity
Explanation: The diversity observed at the species level is known as the species diversity. It is the number and abundance of each species in a particular area. Species diversity is one of the important features of the biosphere.
12. Which organism’s species have greater diversity in the Western Ghats than the Eastern Ghats?
Explanation: Amphibians have more species diversity in the Western Ghats than the Eastern Ghats. A chain of mountains running parallel to India’s western coast (Sahyadri) and the mountain ranges run parallel to the Bay of Bengal are the western and eastern ghats respectively.
13. What is the feature of the biosphere?
a) Low diversity
b) Ecological diversity
c) Negligible diversity
d) No diversity
Explanation: Ecological diversity is one of the important features of the biosphere. It deals with the variations in ecosystems and their overall impact on human existence and the environment within a geographical area.
14. How many years did evolution required?
Explanation: Evolution is the result of the process of slow and gradual changes in millions of years. As evolution proceeds, organisms become more and more complex. The complexity of organisms can be given by studying various processes of biological organization.
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