Biology Questions and Answers – Plant Growth and Development – Differentiation, Dedifferentiation & Redifferentiation

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This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Plant Growth and Development – Differentiation, Dedifferentiation & Redifferentiation”.

1. Which of the following is the process undergone by plants in order to attain maturity?
a) Differentiation
b) Development
c) Dedifferentiation
d) Redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Differentiation is the process undergone by plants in order to attain maturity. Development is the overall changes occurring in the life cycle of an organism. Dedifferentiation is regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Redifferentiation is the further maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function.
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2. The final structure at maturity of a cell or tissue is independent of the location of the cell within.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The final structure at maturity of a cell or tissue is also determined by the location of the cell within. Cell positioned away from root apical meristem forms root cap cells while those pushed to the periphery forms the epidermis.

3. The cells of tracheary elements lose their protoplasm and become dead at maturity due to the deposition of lignocellulosic secondary cell well formation. This is an example of _________
a) redifferentiation
b) development
c) dedifferentiation
d) differentiation
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The formation of secondary cell wall around tracheids and vessels is an example of differentiation. Development is the overall changes occurring in the life cycle of an organism. Dedifferentiation is regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Redifferentiation is the further maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function.
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4. Which of the following phenomena includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death?
a) Dedifferentiation
b) Development
c) Differentiation
d) Redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Development includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death. Dedifferentiation is regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Redifferentiation is the further maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function. Differentiation is the division and growth of cells in order to mature.

5. Elongation and thickening of sclerenchyma cells are an example of __________
a) dedifferentiation
b) development
c) differentiation
d) redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Differentiation leads to elongation and thickening of sclerenchyma cells. : Development includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death. Dedifferentiation is regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Redifferentiation is the further maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function.
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6. Which of the following processes lead to the formation of secondary xylem and phloem?
a) Development
b) Redifferentiation
c) Dedifferentiation
d) Differentiation
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Redifferentiation leads to the formation of secondary xylem and phloem. Redifferentiation is the maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function. Development includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death. Dedifferentiation is regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Differentiation is the division and growth of cells in order to mature.

7. Vacuolization and development of end wall perforation in sieve tube elements are examples of _______
a) development
b) differentiation
c) dedifferentiation
d) redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Differentiation is responsible for the vacuolization and development of end wall perforation in sieve tube elements. Differentiation is the division and growth of cells in order to attain maturity. Dedifferentiation is regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Redifferentiation is the maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function. Development includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death.
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8. The phenomenon under which living cells which have otherwise lost the capacity to divide, regain the property of division under certain conditions is known as __________
a) development
b) differentiation
c) dedifferentiation
d) redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Dedifferentiation is the phenomenon that leads to regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Dedifferentiation is regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Redifferentiation is the maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function. Development includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death.

9. Which of the following phenomenon leads to the specification of functions of dedifferentiated cells upon maturity?
a) Development
b) Differentiation
c) Dedifferentiation
d) Redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Redifferentiation is the maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function. Development includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death. Dedifferentiation is the phenomenon that leads to regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Differentiation is the division and growth of cells in order to attain maturity.
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10. Which of the following processes lead to formation of cork cambium and interfascicular cambium?
a) Development
b) Dedifferentiation
c) Differentiation
d) Redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Dedifferentiation leads to formation of cork cambium and interfascicular cambium. Dedifferentiation is the phenomenon that leads to regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Differentiation is the division and growth of cells in order to attain maturity. Redifferentiation is the maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function. Development includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death.

11. Which of the following processes lead to formation of callus in plant tissue culture carried out in a laboratory?
a) No differentiation
b) Dedifferentiation
c) Differentiation
d) Redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Dedifferentiation leads to formation of cork cambium and interfascicular cambium. Dedifferentiation is the phenomenon that leads to regaining the lost capacity of cells or tissues of plants to divide under special conditions. Differentiation is the division and growth of cells in order to attain maturity. Redifferentiation is the maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function. Development includes all the changes undergone by a living plant from seed emergence to death.

12. Cells of which of the following plant organs do not undergo differentiation?
a) Cork
b) Root apical meristem
c) Shoot apical meristem
d) Intrafasicular cambium
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Cork cell is formed by the process of redifferentiation. Redifferentiation is the maturation of dedifferentiated cells thereby specializing for a particular function. Cells of root apical meristem, shoot apical meristem and intrafasicular cambium undergo differentiation. Differentiation is the division and growth of cells in order to attain maturity.

13. Statement A: Most plants undergo indeterminate growth, growing as long as the plant lives.
Statement B: Indeterminate growth is synonymous to immortality.
a) Both the statements are true
b) Both the statements are false
c) Statement A is true but Statement B is false
d) Statement B is true but Statement A is false
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Indeterminate growth means growth of plant is unspecified and is carried out till the plant survives. Plants are capable of indeterminate growth as they possess perpetually embryonic tissues called meristems. Plant parts such as leaves, thorns and flowers have determinate growth. Indeterminate growth is not synonymous to immortality, the plant continues to thrive, divide and mature.

14. Which of the following processes takes place in (C)?

a) Vascularization
b) Dedifferentiation
c) Differentiation
d) Redifferentiation
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: A: Differentiation
B: Dedifferentiation
C: Redifferentiation
Vascularization occurs in procambium to form primary xylem and phloem along with intrafascicular cambium.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter