This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Chemical Control and Coordination – Human Endocrine System – 1”.
1. Which of these glands are not endocrine?
Explanation: Endocrine glands release chemical messengers called hormones. Hormones act on distant targets. The pituitary, pineal and parathyroid glands are endocrine while the parotid gland is exocrine in nature.
2. Where is the hypothalamus located?
a) Top of the telencephalon
b) Base of the telencephalon
c) Base of the diencephalon
d) Top of the diencephalon
Explanation: The hypothalamus is located at the base of the diencephalon in the forebrain. It has several important functions including the regulation of the levels of several hormones as well as overall homeostasis.
3. What are the hormone secreting cells of the hypothalamus called?
a) Mast cells
c) Neurosecretory cells
Explanation: The hormone secreting cells of the hypothalamus are the neurosecretory cells. The hypothalamus is present at the base of the diencephalon and is responsible for maintaining homeostasis.
4. Which of these hormones is released by the hypothalamus?
Explanation: Somatostatin is a hormone released by the hypothalamus. Prolactin is released by the pituitary gland; melatonin is released by the pineal gland and glucocorticoids are released by the adrenal cortex.
5. GnRH is released by the ______
a) pituitary gland
d) pineal gland
Explanation: GnRH is known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone. It is secreted by the hypothalamus to regulate the synthesis and release of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland. They have an effect on the gonads.
6. What is the function of somatostatin?
a) Inhibits adrenaline release
b) Inhibits gonadotropin release
c) Inhibits growth hormone release
d) Inhibits epinephrine release
Explanation: Somatostatin is a hormone released by the hypothalamus. The function of somatostatin is inhibitory in nature. It inhibits the release of the growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
7. What is the pars distalis also known as?
a) Anterior pituitary
b) Posterior pituitary
c) Adrenal cortex
d) Adrenal medulla
Explanation: The pituitary gland is anatomically divided into the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis is divided into the pars distalis and pars intermedia. The pars distalis is known as the anterior pituitary.
8. Which of these hormones is not secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?
Explanation: The MSH or the melanocyte stimulating hormone is not released by the anterior pituitary gland or the pars distalis. Instead, it is released by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis.
9. Which of these hormones is released by the pars nervosa?
a) Luteinizing hormone
d) Follicle stimulating hormone
Explanation: The pars nervosa is also known as the posterior pituitary gland or the neurohypophysis. It secretes oxytocin and vasopressin or anti diuretic hormone. The rest are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
10. Pars intermedia is a distinct structure in humans. True or false?
Explanation: The pars intermedia is a division of the adenohypophysis, along with the pars distalis. The pars distalis is the anterior pituitary gland. However, the pars intermedia is mostly fused or merged with the pars distalis.
11. Where is vasopressin synthesized?
a) Pars intermedia
b) Anterior pituitary gland
c) Posterior pituitary gland
Explanation: Although the posterior pituitary gland or the pars nervosa secretes vasopressin or anti diuretic hormone, it is synthesized by the hypothalamus. It is then transported through the axon to the posterior pituitary gland.
12. Low secretion of growth hormone results in ______
d) turner’s syndrome
Explanation: Growth hormone is required for the proper maintenance, growth and development of the body. Low secretion of growth hormone results in dwarfism, which is characterized by short stature.
13. Hypersecretion of growth hormone in a middle-aged man would lead to ______
a) addison’s disease
Explanation: Hypersecretion or high secretion of growth hormone in a middle-aged man, who is an adult, would lead to acromegaly. Acromegaly is characterized by severe disfigurement of the body and various complications.
14. What is the function of prolactin?
a) Formation of milk
b) Decreases activity of FSH
c) Decreases activity of LH
d) Increases contractions during childbirth
Explanation: Prolactin is released by the anterior pituitary gland or the pars distalis. It has two important functions-to regulate the growth of the mammary glands and the formation of milk in the mammary glands.
15. Which of these is a steroid hormone?
Explanation: Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex. Its release is regulated by the ACTH or adrenocorticotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
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