This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Chemical Control and Coordination – Endocrine Glands and Hormones”.
1. Which of the following is incorrect regarding the endocrine glands?
a) They are known as ductless glands
b) Their secretions are called hormones
c) Hormones are secreted through ducts in the bloodstream
d) These glands lack ducts
Explanation: Endocrine glands lack ducts and are hence, known as ductless glands. Their secretions are called hormones. As these glands do not have ducts, therefore they release their secretions directly into the bloodstream.
2. Which of the following is not an endocrine gland?
a) Pituitary gland
b) Sebaceous gland
c) Pineal gland
d) Adrenal gland
Explanation: Pituitary, pineal, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, parathyroid, thymus, and gonads are the organised endocrine bodies in our body. The endocrine glands and their hormones constitute the endocrine system.
3. Hypothalamus is the basal part of which of the following?
Explanation: The hypothalamus is the basal part of the diencephalon, forebrain and it regulates a wide spectrum of body functions. It contains several groups of neurosecretory cells called nuclei which produce hormones.
4. How many types of hormones are released by the pituitary?
Explanation: The hormones produced by the hypothalamus are of two types:
i. Releasing hormones-which stimulate the secretion of pituitary hormones
ii. Inhibiting hormones-which inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones.
5. Where do the hypothalamic hormones originate?
a) Nerve endings
b) Synaptic vesicles
c) Hypothalamic neurons
Explanation: The hypothalamic hormones originate in the hypothalamic neurons, pass through axons, and are released from their nerve endings. These hormones reach the pituitary gland through a portal circulatory system and regulate the function of the anterior pituitary.
6. Gonadotrophins inhibits the release of growth hormones from the pituitary gland.
Explanation: Somatostatin from the hypothalamus inhibits the release of growth hormones from the pituitary gland. Gonadotrophin releasing hormones stimulate the pituitary synthesis and release of gonadotrophins.
7. Which part of the pituitary is under the direct control of the hypothalamus?
a) Posterior part
b) Anterior part
c) Dorsal part
d) Ventral part
Explanation: The posterior pituitary is under the direct neural regulation of the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland is located in a bony cavity called Sella turcica and is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk.
8. In how many parts, the pituitary is divided?
Explanation: The pituitary is anatomically divided into two major portions known as adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. Adenohypophysis consists of two portions, pars distalis, and pars intermedia.
9. Which of the following hormone is not secreted by the pars distalis region of the pituitary?
b) Growth hormone
c) Follicle-stimulating hormone
Explanation: The pars distalis region of pituitary produces growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone.
10. Oxytocin and vasopressin are synthesised by the pituitary.
Explanation: Posterior pituitary stores and releases two hormones called oxytocin and vasopressin, which are actually synthesised by the hypothalamus and are transported axonally to the neurohypophysis.
11. Low secretion of the growth hormone causes which of the following diseases?
Explanation: Low secretion of growth hormone results in stunted growth and which is known as dwarfism while the over secretion of the growth hormone causes the abnormal growth of the body leading to gigantism.
12. Which of the following diseases is hard to diagnose?
Explanation: Excess secretion of growth hormones in adults especially in middle age can result in severe disfigurement which is known as Acromegaly, which may lead to serious complications. The disease is hard to diagnose in the early stages and often goes undetected for many years.
13. Which of the following hormones regulate the growth of mammary glands?
Explanation: Prolactin regulates the growth of the mammary glands and the formation of milk in them. ACTH stimulates the synthesis and steroid hormones called glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
14. Which of the following hormones are known as gonadotrophins?
a) LH and Oxytocin
b) LH and vasopressin
c) LH and FSH
d) FSH and Oxytocin
Explanation: LH and FSH stimulate the gonadal activity and are therefore referred to as gonadotrophins. In males, LH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of hormones called androgens from the testis.
15. Which of the following is not a function of LH and FSH in females?
a) Induces ovulation
b) Secretion of androgens
c) Maintaining corpus luteum
d) Stimulates the growth of follicles
Explanation: FSH stimulates the growth and development of the ovarian follicles in females. LH induces ovulation of fully mature follicles and maintains the corpus luteum, formed from the remnants of Graafian follicles after ovulation in females.
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