This set of Biology Aptitude Test for Medical Entrance Exams focuses on “Mineral Requirements of a Plant-2”.
1. Which of the element is beneficial but not essential?
Explanation: Na comes under the group of elements which are beneficial to plants if given in very small amounts. Ca, Mo and Zn are constituents of essential elements group which are absolutely necessary for the survival of the plants.
2. Hydroponics is carried out in presence of purified water and mineral salts.
Explanation: Hydroponics is the process of growing plants in artificial nutrient media. It is done with purified water and mineral salts which means soil is not a necessary factor for growth of plant. It is the minerals that plants get from the elements present in the soil which is responsible for the development of the plant body.
3. Which of the following elements are required in less than 10 mmole Kg-1?
Explanation: Boron is a micronutrient. Micronutrients consist of elements required in less than 10 mmole Kg-1. C, H and S come under the category of macronutrients. Macronutrients consist of elements required in excess of 10 mmole Kg-1.
4. Which of the following plants is not grown by hydroponics?
b) Seedless cucumber
Explanation: Hydroponics is the process of growing plants in artificial nutrient media. Tomato, Lettuce and Seedless cucumber are grown commercially by the process of hydroponics. Pumpkin and other melons are not grown hydroponically. These plants require a lot of space to grow as they spread and increase in size. Also, pollination is difficult as they need bees to pollinate them. So, hydroponics of these vegetables becomes highly labor intensive.
5. Which of the following elements is an essential element?
Explanation: Fe is an essential element belonging to the group of micronutrients. Micronutrients consist of elements which are necessary for plant’s survival and are required in less than 10 mmole Kg-1. Na, Co and Si are beneficial elements required in very small amounts and are present in only few varieties of plants.
6. Which of the following elements is a macronutrient?
Explanation: Mg is a macronutrient. Macronutrients consist of elements which are necessary for plant’s survival and are required in excess of 10 mmole Kg-1. Mg is absorbed by plants in divalent form. It is involved in the synthesis of DNA & RNA. Cu, Mn and Cl are micronutrients.
7. Which of the following macronutrients is used in fertilizers?
Explanation: Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus are important constituent of fertilizers. They are required in abundance by the plants. Oxygen is not used in artificial fertilizers. They in fact interfere with the process of nitrogen fixation carried out by cyanobacteria.
8. Nitrogen is not taken up by plants in _______ form.
Explanation: N2 is the form of nitrogen which exists in the atmospheric but is unavailable and is not useful for the plants. It has to be converted to other molecular forms by different nitrogen fixation processes in order to be accessible to plants. Plants mostly take up nitrogen in form of NO3–. Also, sometimes they absorb nitrogen in NO2– and NH4+ forms.
9. Hydroponics was demonstrated by?
a) Julius Von Sachs
d) M. Calvin
Explanation: Hydroponics is the process of growing plants in artificial nutrient media by providing the required conditions for its proper growth. It was demonstrated by Julius Von Sachs in 1860. Melvin Calvin is an American biochemist who received the 1961 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of the chemical pathways of photosynthesis. The Hoagland solution developed by Hoagland and Snyder provides every nutrient necessary for plant growth and is appropriate for the growth of a large variety of plant species. It was corrected by scientist Arnon.
10. Which of the following roles is not a criterion for essentiality of an element?
a) In its absence, plants do not set seeds
b) Irreplaceable by another element
c) Indirectly involved in the metabolism of the plant
d) Absolutely necessary for metabolism
Explanation: The criteria of essentiality include:
i. The element must be absolutely necessary for supporting normal growth and reproduction. In the absence of the element, plants do not set the seeds.
ii. The element must be directly involved in the metabolism of the plant.
iii. The element must not be replaceable by another element.
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