Biology Questions and Answers – Organelles in Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Organelles in Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells”.

1. Which among the following is incorrect about endoplasmic reticulum?
a) These are complex network of membrane bounded tubules
b) They are classified as smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum
c) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to their surface and acts as site of protein synthesis
d) Rough endoplasmic reticulum is connected by nuclear membrane at one end and golgi apparatus on the other end
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Endoplasmic reticulum is a complex network of membrane bounded tubules. They are classified as smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to their surface and acts as site of protein synthesis. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is connected by nuclear membrane at one end and Golgi apparatus on the other end.
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2. Which among the following is incorrect about prokaryotic cell?
a) In prokaryotic cell, cell compartmentalization is absent
b) Genetic material is scattered in the nucleus
c) Protista is an example of prokaryotic cell
d) Prokaryotic cell has a cell membrane
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In prokaryotic cell, cell compartmentalization is absent. Genetic material is scattered in the nucleus. Protista is an example of eukaryotic cell. Monera and archaebacteria are examples of prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cell has a cell membrane along with glycocalyx.

3. Which among the following is incorrect about lysosomes?
a) These are membrane bound vesicles that contain digestive enzymes
b) They are double membraned and are isolated from their neighboring environment
c) The digestive enzymes present include proteases, lipases, nucleases, glycosidases and phosphatases
d) The lysosomes defend against bacterial and viral infection
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Lysosomes are membrane bound vesicles that contain digestive enzymes. They are single membraned and are isolated from their neighboring environment. The digestive enzymes present include proteases, lipases, nucleases, glycosidases and phosphatases. The lysosomes defend against bacterial and viral infection.

4. Which among the following is not correct about Golgi apparatus?
a) They are absent in RBCs, sperm cell of Pteridophytes and Bryophytes
b) Golgi apparatus is freely distributed in animal cells and in plants fluid filled sac like structures called cisternae that pile parallel to each other to form Golgi bodies
c) There are three main components, namely, cisternae, tubules and vesicles
d) The membrane bound containers which appear dense in the cytoplasm are called vesicles
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: They are absent in RBCs, sperm cell of Pteridophytes and Bryophytes. Golgi apparatus is freely distributed in plant cells and in animal cells fluid filled sac like structures called cisternae that pile parallel to each other to form Golgi bodies. There are three main components, namely, cisternae, tubules and vesicles.

5. Excess alcohol intake leads to fatigue of SER which results in harm to the body.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Excess alcohol intake leads to fatigue of SER which results in harm to the body. SER helps in detoxification of harmful substances. Since, SER is present in large numbers in the liver, rapid detoxification takes place in this region. At a certain point this results in SER fatigue and finally failure of liver.
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6. Which among the following is incorrect about vacuoles?
a) Vacuoles are fluid filled membrane bound sacs
b) They consist of water and sap consisting of minerals, sugars, amino acids and proteins etc.
c) The function of vacuoles differs from one organism to other
d) Vacuoles in plants are not membrane bound and therefore they occupy most of the cell
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Vacuoles are fluid filled membrane bound sacs. They consist of water and sap consisting of minerals, sugars, amino acids and proteins etc. The function of vacuoles differs from one organism to other. Vacuoles in plants occupy most of the cell because they act as storage units of cells in plants.

7. Which among the following statements is incorrect about mitochondria?
a) Mitochondria is a rod-shaped organelle bounded by two membranes and is also called as the power house of the cell
b) Mitochondria has an outer membrane, an inner membrane, cristae and matrix
c) The inner membrane of the mitochondria is highly folded and these folds provide greater surface area for the generation of ATP molecules
d) Mitochondria can’t synthesize their own proteins and depend on rough endoplasmic reticulum
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Mitochondrion is a rod-shaped organelle bounded by two membranes and is also called as the power house of the cell. Mitochondrion has an outer membrane, an inner membrane, cristae and matrix. The inner membrane of the mitochondria is highly folded and these folds provide greater surface area for the generation of ATP molecules. Mitochondria can synthesize their own proteins since they have ribosomes and genetic material in them.

8. Which among the following is incorrect about plastids?
a) These are the organelles present only in plant cell and bear color imparting pigments
b) Plastids are of three kinds, namely, leucoplasts, chromoplasts and chloroplasts
c) Chromoplasts contain carotenoid pigments and provide red to orange color to the flowers and fruits
d) Chloroplast is a single membrane bound organelles with stroma which contains a stack of thyllakoids called grana
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Plastids are the organelles present only in plant cell and bear color imparting pigments. Plastids are of three kinds, namely, leucoplasts, chromoplasts and chloroplasts. Chloroplast is a double membrane bound organelles with stroma which contains a stack of thyllakoids called grana.

9. Which among the following is incorrect about ribosomes?
a) Ribosomes are granule like structures without any membrane that act as site for protein synthesis
b) The size of the ribosomes are expressed using their sedimentation coefficients and is denoted by S, where S denotes to sub – units
c) Eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes are 80S and 70S respectively
d) Eukaryotic ribosome further contains two unequal sub-units, 40S and 60S
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Ribosomes are granule like structures without any membrane that act as site for protein synthesis. The size of the ribosomes are expressed using their sedimentation coefficients and is denoted by S, where S denotes to Svedberg unit. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes are 80S and 70S respectively. Eukaryotic ribosome further contains two unequal sub-units, 40S and 60S.
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10. Which among the following is incorrect about cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella?
a) Cytoskeleton is the network of minute proteinaceous structure in the cytoplasm and which mainly contains microfilaments and micro tubules
b) Microtubules are composed of protein actin and microtubules are composed of protein tubulin
c) Cilia is present in large numbers of the body and only one or two flagella are present in an organism
d) Both flagella and cilia help in movement of the organism
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Cytoskeleton is the network of minute proteinaceous structure in the cytoplasm and which mainly contains microfilaments and micro tubules. Microtubules are composed of protein tubulin and microtubules are composed of protein actin.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter