This set of Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Disorders in Excretory System”.
1. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until which of the following?
a) A voluntary signal from the CNS
b) An involuntary signal from the CNS
c) A voluntary signal from the ANS
d) An involuntary signal from the ANS
Explanation: Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until a voluntary signal comes from the Central nervous system. The receptors present on the urinary bladder receive these signals.
2. Which of the following initiates the voluntary signal given by CNS?
a) Loosening of stretch receptors in the urinary bladder
b) Stretching of the urinary bladder
c) Movement of the urinary bladder
d) Movement of urethra
Explanation: The signal given by CNS is initiated by the stretching of the urinary bladder as it gets filled with the urine. In response, the stretch receptors on the walls of the bladder send signals to the CNS.
3. Which of the following sphincters cause the release of the urine?
a) Cardiac sphincter
b) Pyloric sphincter
c) Urethral sphincter
d) Oesophageal sphincter
Explanation: Urethral sphincter causes the release of urine to the outside of the body. This process starts when the central nervous system passes on the motor messages to the smooth muscles of the bladder. This signal initiates their contraction. Simultaneously, relaxation of the urethral sphincter takes place which causes the release of the urine.
4. What is the process of excreting urine known as?
Explanation: The process of release of urine is called micturition and the neural mechanisms causing it is called micturition reflex. An adult human excretes about 1 to 1.5 litres of urine per day.
5. The urine formed is brownish.
Explanation: The urine formed is a light yellow coloured watery fluid that is slightly acidic and has a characteristic odour. On average, 25-30 grams of urea is excreted out per day.
6. The presence of ketone bodies is an indication of which of the following diseases?
a) Diabetes mellitus
b) Diabetes insipidus
c) High blood cholesterol
d) Liver Cirrhosis
Explanation: Analysis of urine helps in the clinical diagnosis of many metabolic disorders. For example, the presence of glucose or Glycosuria and ketone bodies or Ketonuria in urine is indicative of diabetes mellitus.
7. What is uraemia?
a) Accumulation of sodium ions in the blood
b) Accumulation of potassium ions in the blood
c) Accumulation of urea in the blood
d) Accumulation of ammonia in the blood
Explanation: Malfunctioning of kidneys can lead to the accumulation of urea in blood, a condition known as uraemia, which is highly harmful and may lead to kidney failure.
8. What is haemodialysis?
a) Removal of ammonia in the blood by artificial means
b) Removal of potassium ions in the blood by artificial means
c) Removal of sodium ions in the blood by artificial means
d) Removal of urea in the blood by artificial means
Explanation: Urea from blood can be removed by artificial means if a person is not able to excrete out urea. It is removed by a process called haemodialysis in which blood is drained from a convenient artery into a dialysing unit called an artificial kidney.
9. The dialysing fluid has all of the following except?
a) Nitrogenous wastes
Explanation: Nitrogenous wastes are not present in the dialysing fluid. The dialysing unit after the addition of an anticoagulant like heparin contains a coiled cellophane tube surrounded by a fluid which proteins, electrolytes and glucose (almost same as that of the plasma) except for the fact that it does not have nitrogenous wastes.
10. What is the significance of the porous nature of the cellophane membrane?
a) It does not allow the movement of molecules
b) It does not allow the movement of water
c) It allows the molecules based on their concentration gradient
d) It allows only water molecules
Explanation: The porous membrane of the cellophane tube of the dialysing unit allows the passage or movement of molecules, based on their concentration gradient. As nitrogenous wastes are not present in the dialysing fluid, therefore these wastes passively move out from our blood and hence filtering it.
11. Kidney transplantation is the ultimate method in the correction of acute renal failures.
Explanation: Kidney transplantation is the ultimate method in the correction of acute renal failures or kidney failures. A functioning kidney is used in the transplantation from a donor, preferably a close relative to avoid rejection by the immune system of the host.
12. What is the inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney referred to?
Explanation: Inflammation of glomeruli is referred to as glomerulonephritis. The inflammation of urinary bladder, nephron, and pelvis of the kidney is referred to as Cystitis, Nephritis, and Pyelonephritis respectively.
13. Which of the following is the term given to the condition of RBCs in urine?
Explanation: When RBCs are present in the urine then it is termed as haematuria. The presence of white blood cells, haemoglobin and proteins are termed as pyuria, haemoglobinuria, and proteinuria respectively.
14. Which of the following is not a symptom of diabetes mellitus?
c) Renal calculi
Explanation: Diabetes mellitus is due to the deficiency of insulin due to which the glucose level increases in the blood. The symptoms include Ketonuria, glycosuria, polyuria, polyphagia, and polydipsia.
15. Which of the following mineral is not involved in the formation of renal calculi?
a) Calcium oxalate
b) Calcium carbonate
c) Uric acid
Explanation: Kidney stones or renal calculi is due to the formation of calcium oxalate which results in 60% of the kidney stones, calcium carbonate which results in 30% of the kidney stones and uric acid which results in 10-20% of the kidney stones.
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