Biology Questions and Answers – Chemical Control and Coordination – Human Endocrine System – 4

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This set of Biology Exam Questions for AIIMS Exam focuses on “Chemical Control and Coordination – Human Endocrine System – 4”.

1. Which hormone is responsible for reabsorption of sodium ions and water?
a) Adrenaline
b) Glucocorticoids
c) Testosterone
d) Aldosterone
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid in our body. It is mainly responsible for fluid regulation in the body and hence propagates reabsorption of sodium ions and excretion of phosphate ions.
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2. Which of these hormones generates lipolysis and proteolysis and also inhibits cellular uptake?
a) Insulin
b) Aldosterone
c) Glucocorticoid
d) Glucagon
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Glucocorticoids are responsible for carbohydrate metabolism in our body. It is responsible for gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and proteolysis. It inhibits cellular uptake of available nutrients.

3. Which hormone is responsible for regulating the osmotic pressure and body fluid volume?
a) Oxytocin
b) Prolactin
c) Aldosterone
d) Glucocorticoids
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The adrenal cortex mainly secretes hormones commonly known as corticoids. Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid in the body responsible for regulating osmotic pressure and body fluid levels.
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4. Which type of cells of the Islet of Langerhans are responsible for hyperglycemia?
a) β-cells
b) α-cells
c) δ-cells
d) F cells
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Islet of Langerhans consists of two major types of cells, namely, α-cells and β-cells. β-cells are responsible for the secretion of insulin, which is responsible for hyperglycaemia or high blood sugar.

5. Corpus luteum is responsible for the secretion of which hormone?
a) Estrogen
b) Progesterone
c) Vasopressin
d) Melatonin
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Ovaries produce two groups of steroid hormones known as estrogen and progesterone. After ovulation, the ruptured follicle is converted into a structure known as corpus luteum, which is responsible for progesterone secretion.
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6. Which of these supports pregnancy and stimulates milk secretion?
a) Corpus luteum
b) Ovum
c) Progesterone
d) Estrogen
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Ovaries release two steroid hormones known as estrogen and progesterone which are a part of female reproductive system. Progesterone helps with the formation of alveoli and the process of secretion of milk.

7. Leydig cells are responsible for the production of ______
a) testosterone
b) estrogen
c) progesterone
d) erythropoietin
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Testis is composed of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells or interstitial cells. The Leydig cells are responsible for the production of androgens, especially testosterone which is the male sex hormone.
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8. Which disorder involves the formation of ketone bodies?
a) Graves’ disease
b) Diabetes insipidus
c) Acromegaly
d) Diabetes mellitus
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Prolonged hyperglycemia leads to a disorder called diabetes mellitus. It is characterized by weight loss, frequent urination, presence of glucose in urine or glycosuria and the formation of ketone bodies.

9. Which gland is both endocrine and exocrine?
a) Thyroid gland
b) Adrenal gland
c) Pancreas
d) Parathyroid gland
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Many glands in the endocrine system can perform more than one function. Pancreas is a composite gland that acts as both an endocrine and an exocrine gland. The Islets of Langerhans cells are mainly endocrine.
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10. The stromal tissue of the testis is responsible for the production of testosterone. True or false?
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Testis is composed of seminiferous tubules and stromal or interstitial tissue. The stromal tissue which is composed of Leydig cells is responsible for the production of androgens, mainly testosterone.

11. The α-cells in the pancreas secrete which hormone?
a) Somatotropin
b) Somatostatin
c) Insulin
d) Glucagon
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas contain mostly α-cells and β-cells. The α-cells are responsible for the secretion of glucagon while the latter is responsible for the secretion of insulin.

12. Which of these hormones stimulates glycogenesis?
a) Glucagon
b) Erythropoietin
c) Insulin
d) Secretin
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Insulin stimulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles, via a process known as glycogenesis. Thus, insulin helps maintain homeostasis by regulating the blood sugar level.

13. Which of these is not a steroid hormone?
a) Estrogen
b) Progesterone
c) Vasopressin
d) Triiodothyronine
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Vasopressin is a protein hormone. It is a nonapeptide. Triiodothyronine is secreted by thyroid gland while estrogen and progesterone are steroid hormones that are secreted by the ovaries.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter