This set of Biology Exam Questions for AIIMS Exam focuses on “Chemical Control and Coordination – Human Endocrine System – 4”.
1. Which hormone is responsible for reabsorption of sodium ions and water?
Explanation: Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid in our body. It is mainly responsible for fluid regulation in the body and hence propagates reabsorption of sodium ions and excretion of phosphate ions.
2. Which of these hormones generates lipolysis and proteolysis and also inhibits cellular uptake?
Explanation: Glucocorticoids are responsible for carbohydrate metabolism in our body. It is responsible for gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and proteolysis. It inhibits cellular uptake of available nutrients.
3. Which hormone is responsible for regulating the osmotic pressure and body fluid volume?
Explanation: The adrenal cortex mainly secretes hormones commonly known as corticoids. Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid in the body responsible for regulating osmotic pressure and body fluid levels.
4. Which type of cells of the Islet of Langerhans are responsible for hyperglycemia?
d) F cells
Explanation: Islet of Langerhans consists of two major types of cells, namely, α-cells and β-cells. β-cells are responsible for the secretion of insulin, which is responsible for hyperglycaemia or high blood sugar.
5. Corpus luteum is responsible for the secretion of which hormone?
Explanation: Ovaries produce two groups of steroid hormones known as estrogen and progesterone. After ovulation, the ruptured follicle is converted into a structure known as corpus luteum, which is responsible for progesterone secretion.
6. Which of these supports pregnancy and stimulates milk secretion?
a) Corpus luteum
Explanation: Ovaries release two steroid hormones known as estrogen and progesterone which are a part of female reproductive system. Progesterone helps with the formation of alveoli and the process of secretion of milk.
7. Leydig cells are responsible for the production of ______
Explanation: Testis is composed of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells or interstitial cells. The Leydig cells are responsible for the production of androgens, especially testosterone which is the male sex hormone.
8. Which disorder involves the formation of ketone bodies?
a) Graves’ disease
b) Diabetes insipidus
d) Diabetes mellitus
Explanation: Prolonged hyperglycemia leads to a disorder called diabetes mellitus. It is characterized by weight loss, frequent urination, presence of glucose in urine or glycosuria and the formation of ketone bodies.
9. Which gland is both endocrine and exocrine?
a) Thyroid gland
b) Adrenal gland
d) Parathyroid gland
Explanation: Many glands in the endocrine system can perform more than one function. Pancreas is a composite gland that acts as both an endocrine and an exocrine gland. The Islets of Langerhans cells are mainly endocrine.
10. The stromal tissue of the testis is responsible for the production of testosterone. True or false?
Explanation: Testis is composed of seminiferous tubules and stromal or interstitial tissue. The stromal tissue which is composed of Leydig cells is responsible for the production of androgens, mainly testosterone.
11. The α-cells in the pancreas secrete which hormone?
Explanation: The Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas contain mostly α-cells and β-cells. The α-cells are responsible for the secretion of glucagon while the latter is responsible for the secretion of insulin.
12. Which of these hormones stimulates glycogenesis?
Explanation: Insulin stimulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles, via a process known as glycogenesis. Thus, insulin helps maintain homeostasis by regulating the blood sugar level.
13. Which of these is not a steroid hormone?
Explanation: Vasopressin is a protein hormone. It is a nonapeptide. Triiodothyronine is secreted by thyroid gland while estrogen and progesterone are steroid hormones that are secreted by the ovaries.
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