This set of Biology Assessment Questions for AIIMS Exam focuses on “Chemical Control and Coordination – Human Endocrine System – 2”.
1. What is the function of FSH in males?
a) Fight or flight response
b) Secretion of androgens
c) Synthesis of androgens
d) Regulation of spermatogenesis
Explanation: FSH or follicle stimulating hormone regulates spermatogenesis. Luteinizing hormone or LH is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of androgens, while catecholamines are responsible for the fight or flight response.
2. Which of these is not a function of gonadotropins in females?
a) Induction of ovulation
b) Maintenance of corpus luteum
c) Breakdown of corpus luteum
d) Development of ovarian follicles
Explanation: The gonadotropins are luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In females, they are responsible for inducing ovulation, maintaining the corpus luteum and developing ovarian follicles.
3. What is the function of MSH?
a) Formation of milk in females
b) Growth of mammary glands
c) Regulation of pigmentation
d) Stimulation of smooth muscle contraction
Explanation: MSH or melanocyte stimulating hormone is responsible for regulating the pigmentation of the body. It does so by acting on melanin containing cells or melanocytes. MSH is secreted by the pineal gland.
4. Which of these is not a function of oxytocin?
a) Stimulation of breastmilk production
b) Stimulation of smooth muscle contraction
c) Stimulation of uterine contraction at childbirth
d) Ejection of milk
Explanation: Oxytocin is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. Its functions include stimulating the contraction of smooth muscles as well as contractions of the uterus during childbirth and ejection of milk. Prolactin is responsible for the production of breastmilk.
5. Where does vasopressin act on in the kidneys?
a) Afferent arteriole
d) Efferent arteriole
Explanation: Vasopressin or anti-diuretic hormone is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. It acts on the DCT or distal convoluted tubule of the nephrons of the kidney for the reabsorption of water and electrolytes.
6. An abnormality in the functioning of which of these hormones can lead to diabetes insipidus?
d) Growth hormone
Explanation: An abnormality in the synthesis or secretion of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin leads to diabetes insipidus. This disorder is characterized by dehydration due to excess water loss.
7. What is the location of the pineal gland?
a) Dorsal side of forebrain
b) Ventral side of forebrain
c) Dorsal side of midbrain
d) Ventral side of midbrain
Explanation: The pineal gland is located on the dorsal side of the forebrain. It secretes melatonin, which is an important hormone that regulates the diurnal cycle of the body as well as body temperature.
8. Which of these is not a function of melatonin?
a) Regulation of the diurnal cycle
b) Regulation of body temperature
c) Regulation of menstrual cycle
d) Regulation of bowel movements
Explanation: Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland. It is responsible for the regulation of the sleep-wake or diurnal cycle, body temperature as well as menstrual cycle, but not bowel movements.
9. Identify the structure shown below.
a) Pineal gland
b) Adrenal gland
c) Thyroid gland
Explanation: The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland located below the vocal cords on either side of the trachea. It consists of two lobes joined by the isthmus, which is a thin stretch of connective tissue.
10. Melatonin influences our defense capabilities. True or false?
Explanation: Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It is responsible for various functions such as the sleep-wake or diurnal cycle and body temperature. It also affects our defense capabilities.
11. Thyroid gland contains ______
a) granules, collagen fibers
b) goblet cells, plasma
c) mast cells, matrix
d) follicles, stromal tissue
Explanation: The thyroid gland is made up of follicles and stromal tissue. The follicular cells are responsible for the production of hormones thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine as well as triiodothyronine.
12. Which element is crucial for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland?
Explanation: Iodine is responsible for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland. It is used for the production of the thyroid hormones thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4) as well as triiodothyronine(T3).
13. Goiter is caused by ______
a) deficiency of calcium
b) surplus of iodine
c) deficiency of iodine
d) surplus of calcium
Explanation: Goiter is caused due to the deficiency of iodine in the diet. The element iodine is important for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland and its deficiency leads to the enlargement of the gland.
14. Hypothyroidism causes _____
b) Addison’s disease
c) Graves’ disease
Explanation: Hypothyroidism is the decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. It is caused due to the deficiency of iodine and leads to the enlargement of the thyroid gland which is called goiter.
15. Graves’ disease is caused by ______
c) deficiency of vasopressin
d) deficiency of adrenaline
Explanation: Graves’ disease is caused due to hyperthyroidism or excess production of thyroid hormones. It is characterized by enlargement of the thyroid gland, protruding eyeballs and weight loss.
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