This set of Construction and Building Materials Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Types of Foundation”.
1. A spread is given under the base of a wall or common is known as ________
Explanation: Such spread is known as footing and the foundation is known as spread footing. Footing which contains steps or off sets and it is also referred to as the step footing. If the wall rest directly on foundation concrete without any step, it is known as the simple footing.
2. What is the value of angle of response for clay(dry) soil.
Explanation: The depth of footing should also be such that the rate of angle of spread of the load from the wall base to the outer edge of ground bearing does not exceed the permissible value.
Explanation: If the wall raised directly on foundation concrete without any step, it is known as the simple footing or single footing. In this case, the load of the wall is directly subjected to the footing without any step distribution and hence mostly affected by central buckling.
Explanation: The above given figure contains steps or offsets and it is also referred to as the stepped footing. Such type of footing are commonly used in the small buildings or single storey buildings in which load is distributed step wisely into the ground.
Explanation: Above given figure shows sloped footing for an RCC column or pier. It is an type of Shallow Foundation which is commonly used for the piers of bridges with shallow depth below in water.
6. Which Foundation is used when the wall carries light loads or when the safe bearing pressure is very high.
a) Simple Strip footing
b) Simple pad footing
c) Grillage footing
d) Strap footing
Explanation: In that case, a simple strip footing is provided. The wall directly rest on the concrete base, and no masonry offset are provided since spread is not required.
Explanation: A strap putting comprises of two or more footings of individual columns, connected by a beam, called as a strap. The function of the strap been is to transfer the load of heavily loaded outer column to the inner one.
Explanation: End bearing pile are used to transfer load through water or soft soil to a suitable bearing stratum. Such type of foundations are used in the clay soil or marshy soil.
Explanation: Friction pile are used to transfer loads to a depth of a friction load carrying Material by means of skin friction along the length of piles. Such Foundation is used where hard Strata is not available to a certain depth below the soil.
Explanation: It is an type of deep foundation. Anchor piles provide Anchorage against horizontal pull from sheet piling other pulling forces. Whereas, sheet piles are commonly used as bulkheads, or as impervious cut off to reduce seepage and uplift under hydraulic structures.
Explanation: Tension pile or uplift pile anchor down the structures subjected to uplift due to hydrostatic pressure due to over turning moment. Such foundations are always under very high tension and hence need to be laid very carefully.
Explanation: The batter piles are used to resist large horizontal or incline forces. It is an type of miscellaneous piles and used in combination with sheet pile.
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