# Civil Engineering Drawing Questions and Answers – Analysis of Rate of Road Work

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This set of Civil Engineering Drawing Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Analysis of Rate of Road Work”.

1. In countries where traffic flows on the right, traffic signs are mostly on the left side of the road.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: In countries where traffic flows on the right, traffic signs are mostly on the right side of the road, roundabouts and traffic circles go counter-clockwise/anti-clockwise, and pedestrians crossing a two-way road should watch out for traffic from the left first. In countries where traffic flows on the left, the reverse is true.
About 33% of the world by population drive on the left and 67% keep right. By road distances, about 28% drive on the left, and 72% on the right, even though originally most traffic drove on the left worldwide.

2. The United States has the largest network of roads of any country with 4,050,717 miles (6,518,997 km) as of 2009.
a) False
b) True

Explanation: The Republic of India has the second largest road system in the world with 4,689,842 kilometres (2,914,133 mi) of road (2013). The People’s Republic of China is third with 3,583,715 kilometres (2,226,817 mi) of road (2007). The Federative Republic of Brazil has the fourth largest road system in the world with 1,751,868 kilometres (1,088,560 mi) (2002).

3. Many populated domestic islands are connected to the mainland by bridges.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: A very long example is the 113-mile (181.9 km) Overseas Highway connecting many of the Florida Keys with the continental United States.
Even on mainlands, some settlements have no roads connecting with the primary continental network, due to natural obstacles like mountains or wetlands, remoteness, or general expense.
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4. With flexible pavement, the highest stress occurs at the surface and the stress increases as the depth of the pavement decreases.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: With flexible pavement, the highest stress occurs at the surface and the stress decreases as the depth of the pavement increases. Therefore, the highest quality material needs to be used for the surface, while lower quality materials can be used as the depth of the pavement increases. The term “flexible” is used because of the asphalts ability to bend and deform slightly, then return to its original position as each traffic load is applied and removed. It is possible for these small deformations to become permanent, which can lead to rutting in the wheel path over an extended time.

5. The service life of a flexible pavement is typically designed in the range of 20 to 30 years.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Required thicknesses of each layer of a flexible pavement vary widely depending on the materials used, magnitude, number of repetitions of traffic loads, environmental conditions, and the desired service life of the pavement. Factors such as these are taken into consideration during the design process so that the pavement will last for the designed life without excessive distresses.

6. Flexible pavements are generally used in constructing airports and major highways, such as those in the interstate highway system.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Rigid pavements are generally used in constructing airports and major highways, such as those in the interstate highway system.

7. Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the most common material used in the construction of rigid pavement slabs.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The reason for its popularity is due to its availability and the economy. Rigid pavements must be designed to endure frequently repeated traffic loadings. The typical designed service life of a rigid pavement is between 30 and 40 years, lasting about twice as long as a flexible pavement.

8. ________________ is an engineering discipline branching from civil engineering that involves the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads, bridges, and tunnels.
a) Structural engineering
b) Highway engineering
c) CS engineering
d) Electrical engineering

Explanation: Highway engineering became prominent towards the latter half of the 20th Century after World War II. Standards of highway engineering are continuously being improved. Highway engineers must take into account future traffic flows, design of highway intersections/interchanges, geometric alignment and design, highway pavement materials and design, structural design of pavement thickness, and pavement maintenance.

9. The two major types of pavement surfaces are _________ and __________
a) ordinary portland cement (OPC) and hot-mix asphalt
b) rapid hardening cement and hot-mix asphalt
c) portland cement concrete (PCC) and bitumen
d) portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot-mix asphalt

Explanation: Underneath this wearing course are material layers that give structural support for the pavement system. These underlying surfaces may include either the aggregate base and sub base layers, or treated base and sub base layers, and additionally the underlying natural or treated subgrade. These treated layers may be cement-treated, asphalt-treated, or lime-treated for additional support.

10. For a four layer flexible pavement, there is a surface course, base course, and ______________ constructed over a compacted, natural soil subgrade.
b) sub-base course
c) base course
d) sub-ballast

Explanation: When building a three layer flexible pavement, the subbase layer is not used and the base course is placed directly on the natural subgrade.
A flexible pavement’s surface layer is constructed of hot-mix asphalt (HMA).Un stabilized aggregates are typically used for the base course; however, the base course could also be stabilized with asphalt, Foamed Bitumen, Portland cement, or another stabilizing agent. The sub base is generally constructed from local aggregate material, while the top of the subgrade is often stabilized with cement or lime.

11. Rigid pavements are generally constructed in three layers – a prepared subgrade, base or sub base, and a _______________
a) RCC
b) Concrete slab
c) Steel
d) Cement slab

Explanation: The concrete slab is constructed according to a designed choice of plan dimensions for the slab panels, directly influencing the intensity of thermal stresses occurring within the pavement. In addition to the slab panels, temperature reinforcements must be designed to control cracking behaviour in the slab. Joint spacing is determined by the slab panel dimensions.

12. Three main types of concrete pavements commonly used are Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP), ___________________ and continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP).
a) Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP)
b) Jointed reinforced pavement (JRP)
c) Jointed concrete pavement (JCP)
d) Reinforced concrete pavement (RCP)

Explanation: JPCP’s are constructed with contraction joints which direct the natural cracking of the pavement. These pavements do not use any reinforcing steel. JRCP’s are constructed with both contraction joints and reinforcing steel to control the cracking of the pavement. High temperatures and moisture stresses within the pavement creates cracking, which the reinforcing steel holds tightly together.

13. The ______________ is the region of the pavement section that is located directly under the surface course.
a) sub-base course
b) grit
c) base course
d) ballast

Explanation: If there is a sub-base course, the base course is constructed directly about this layer. Otherwise, it is built directly on top of the subgrade. Typical base course thickness ranges from 4 to 6 inches and is governed by underlying layer properties.
Heavy loads are continuously applied to pavement surfaces, and the base layer absorbs the majority of these stresses. Generally, the base course is constructed with an untreated crushed aggregate such as crushed stone, slag, or gravel. The base course material will have stability under the construction traffic and good drainage characteristics.

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