This set of Tough Civil Engineering Drawing Questions and Answers focuses on “Steel and Iron Work – 2”.
1. What are the impurities added in the steel?
d) Silicon, Manganese, Sulphur
Explanation: Impurities percentage is very minimal, and it is added according to the requirements
• Manganese, etc.
2. What are the main challenges does steel industry is facing now?
a) High raw material cost
c) Price volatility
d) High Raw Material Cost, Overcapacity, Price Volatility
Explanation: It is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease.
3. Because of its low tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.
Explanation: Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.
4. Iron is commonly found in the Earth’s crust in the form of an ore, usually an iron oxide.
Explanation: Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon which is then lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C (482 °F), and copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C (2,010 °F), and the combination, bronze, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C (1,981 °F).
5. PCI stands for – Pulverized Coal Injection Method.
Explanation: Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) is a process that involves blowing large volumes of fine coal granules into the BF. This provides a supplemental carbon source to speed up the production of metallic iron, reducing the need for coke production. As a result, energy use and emissions can be reduced.
6. Pig iron is pure iron.
Explanation: Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.8–4.7%, along with silica and other constituents of dross, which makes it very brittle, and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications.
7. Iron products make 10-15% of the total world metal production.
Explanation: Iron products make 90-95% of the total world metal production.
The World’s largest producer of iron is China with over 60% share in world production, followed by Japan with around 7%, and Russia and India with about 4%.
8. Mild iron deficiency can be prevented or corrected by eating iron-rich foods and by cooking in an iron skillet.
Explanation: Because iron is a requirement for most plants and animals, a wide range of foods provide iron. Good sources of dietary iron have heme-iron, as this is most easily absorbed and is not inhibited by medication or other dietary components. Three examples are red meat, poultry, and insects. Non-heme sources do contain iron, though it has reduced bioavailability. Examples are lentils, beans, leafy vegetables, pistachios, tofu, fortified bread, and fortified breakfast cereals.
9. Blast furnace is a technique used to raise the temperature up to 2200 degree C in the furnace.
Explanation: In a blast furnace fuel (coke), ores, and flux (limestone) are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while a hot blast of air (sometimes with oxygen enrichment) is blown into the lower section of the furnace through a series of pipes called tuyeres, so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material falls downward. The end products are usually molten metal and slag phases tapped from the bottom, and flue gases exiting from the top of the furnace.
10. The main types of stainless steel are Ferritic, Austenitic, Martensitic.
Explanation: ‘Stainless’ is a term coined early in the development of these steels for cutlery applications. It was adopted as a generic name for these steels and now covers a wide range of steel types and grades for corrosion or oxidation resistant applications.
Stainless steels are iron alloys with a minimum of 10.5% chromium. Other alloying elements are added to enhance their structure and properties such as formability, strength and cryogenic toughness.
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