This set of Civil Engineering Drawing test focuses on “Estimate of Earthwork by Three Methods”.
1. Normally earthwork is estimated for 30 m lead for distance and 1.5 m lift for height or depth, and this distance of 30 m and the height of 1.5 m are known as _____________
a) vertical lead and lift
b) normal lead and lift
c) horizontal lead and lift
d) transverse lead and lift
Explanation: Normal rate for earthwork is for 30 m lead and 1.5 m lift. For greater lead or lift the rates will be different (higher) for every unit of 30 m lead and for every unit of 1.5 m lift. The earthwork is, therefore, estimated separately for every 30 m lead and for every 1.5 m lift.
2. Cross-section of earthwork of road in banking is in the form of trapezium. Name the method to calculate the quantity of earthwork.
a) Longitudinal formula
b) Quadrilateral formula
c) Prismoidal formula
d) Trapezium formula
Explanation: Quantity or volume = L/6 (A1+A2+4Am).
3. Workout the quantity of earthwork for an embankment 150 m long and 10 m wide at the top. Slide slop is 2:1 and depths at each 30 m intervals are 1.2, 1.4, 1.4, 1.6, 0.60, 1.6 m.
a) 3572.9 m3
b) 4563.7 m3
c) 2572.8 m3
d) 2590.0 m3
4. To calculate the volume of earthwork from contour plan for filling a depression or pond and for cutting a hillock __________________ may be used conveniently.
a) elevation method
b) section area method
c) prismoidal formula
d) contour method
Explanation: The area with every contour may be found by using a Planimeter or a tracing paper containing squares. Then the prismoidal formula may be applied to calculate the volume, the distance between the two sections will be the contour intervals, i.e., the difference of level between two consecutive contours.
5. Calculate the quantity of earthwork for 200 m length for a portion of road in an uniform ground the heights of banks at the two ends being 1.00 m and 1.60 m. The formation width is 10 mm and side slope 2:1. Assume that there is no traverse slope.
a) 3276 cu m
b) 5676 cu m
c) 6757 cu m
d) 1121 cu m
Explanation: Quantity = (Bd+sd2) *length
Where, B=10 m, S=2,L=200 m, d=mean depth=(1+1.60)/2=1.30 m
Quantity = (10*1.3+2*1.32)*200=(13=3.38)*200=16.38*200=3276 cu m.
6. Designated point on a road where road marking or other means helps pedestrians cross safely is called?
a) Zebra crossing
b) Pedestrian crossing
Explanation: A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians to cross a road. Crosswalks are designed to keep pedestrians together where they can be seen by motorists, and where they can cross most safely across the flow of vehicular traffic.
Marked pedestrian crossings are often found at intersections, but may also be at other points on busy roads that would otherwise be too unsafe to cross without assistance due to vehicle numbers, speed or road widths. They are also commonly installed where large numbers of pedestrians are attempting to cross (such as in shopping areas) or where vulnerable road users (such as school children) regularly cross.
7. A raised edge at the side of the roadway is known as _____________
Explanation: A curb, or kerb is the edge where a raised sidewalk (pavement in British English) or road median/central reservation meets a street or other roadway.
8. What is the longitudinal slope called?
Explanation: The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the slope, where zero indicates horizontality. A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of “tilt”. Often slope is calculated as a ratio of “rise” to “run”, or as a fraction (“rise over run”) in which run is the horizontal distance and rise is the vertical distance.
9. A ________is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Explanation: Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: carriageways), each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks (British English: pavement) and road verges. In the Netherlands there is often a Protected Bicycle Path provided for cycling.
Roads available for use by the public may be referred to as parkways, avenues, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary, secondary, and tertiary local roads.
10. The vertical alignment of a road, expressed as a series of grades, connected by parabolic curves is called ___________
Explanation: The profile of a road consists of road slopes, called grades, connected by parabolic vertical curves. Vertical curves are used to provide a gradual change from one road slope to another, so that vehicles may smoothly navigate grade changes as they travel.
Sag vertical curves are those that have a tangent slope at the end of the curve that is higher than that of the beginning of the curve. When driving on a road, a sag curve would appear as a valley, with the vehicle first going downhill before reaching the bottom of the curve and continuing uphill or level.
11. ____________________is the road alignment specification which provides a substantially clear line of sight so that the driver of a vehicle.
a) Stopping sight distance
b) Safe sight distance
c) Corner sight distance (CSD)
d) Intersection sight distance
Explanation: Bicyclist or pedestrian waiting at the crossroad may safely anticipate the driver of an approaching vehicle. Corner sight provides an adequate time for the waiting user to either cross all lanes of through traffic, cross the near lanes and turn left, or turn right, without requiring through traffic to radically alter their speed.
12. Typical lane widths range from ______ metres to _____metres.
a) 1, 2.4
b) 10, 12.6
c) 3, 3.6
d) 8, 8.6
Explanation: Wider lanes and shoulders are usually used on roads with higher speed and higher volume traffic, and significant numbers of trucks and other large vehicles. Narrower lanes may be used on roads with lower speed or lower volume traffic.
Narrow lanes cost less to build and maintain, but also reduce the capacity of a road to convey traffic. On rural roads, narrow lanes are likely to experience higher rates of run-off-road and head-on collisions. Wider roads increase the time needed to walk across, and increase storm water runoff.
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