This set of Civil Engineering Drawing Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Earthwork and Estimation”.
1. ___________ is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Explanation: Irrigation helps grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.
2. Name the type of irrigation, which is the oldest form of irrigation and has been in use for thousands of years.
a) Sub-surface irrigation
b) Surface irrigation
c) Canal irrigation
d) Rainwater irrigation
Explanation: In surface (furrow, flood, or level basin) irrigation systems, water moves across the surface of an agricultural lands, in an order to wet it and infiltrate into the soil. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow, borderstrip or basin irrigation. It is often called flood irrigation when the irrigation results in flooding or near flooding of the cultivated land.
3. ____________ sometimes also called as localized irrigation, low volume irrigation, or trickle irrigation.
b) Surface irrigation
d) Farrow irrigation
Explanation: It is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. Traditional drip irrigation using individual emitters, subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), micro-spray or micro-sprinkler irrigation, and mini-bubbler irrigation all belong to this category of irrigation methods.
4. Name the system, where water falls drop by drop just at the position of roots and water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop.
a) Pipe irrigation
b) Drop irrigation
c) Drip irrigation
Explanation: This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation, if managed properly, evaporation and runoff are minimized. The field water efficiency of drip irrigation is typically in the range of 80 to 90 percent when managed correctly.
5. ___________ is the injection of fertilizers, soil amendments, and other water-soluble products into an irrigation system.
Explanation: The two terms are sometimes used interchangeably however chemigation is generally a more controlled and regulated process due to the nature of the chemicals used. Chemigation often involves pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides, some of which pose health threat to humans, animals, and the environment.
6. In __________ irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns.
Explanation: A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.
7. Subirrigation has been used for many years in field crops in areas with high water tables.
Explanation: It is a method of artificially raising the water table to allow the soil to be moistened from below the plants’ root zone. Often those systems are located on permanent grasslands in lowlands or river valleys and combined with drainage infrastructure. A system of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table.
8. Subsurface Textile Irrigation (SSTI) is a technology designed specifically for subirrigation in only desert sands and heavy clays.
Explanation: Subsurface Textile Irrigation (SSTI) is a technology designed specifically for subirrigation in all soil textures from desert sands to heavy clays. A typical subsurface textile irrigation system has an impermeable base layer (usually polyethylene or polypropylene), a drip line running along that base, a layer of geotextile on top of the drip line and, finally, a narrow impermeable layer on top of the geotextile.
9. Around 30% of wastewater produced globally remains untreated, causing widespread water pollution.
Explanation: Around 90% of wastewater produced globally remains untreated, causing widespread water pollution. Increasingly, agriculture uses untreated wastewater as a source of irrigation water. Cities provide lucrative markets for fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers.
10. Water use efficiency in the field can be determined as follows:
Field Water Efficiency (%) = (Water Transpired by Crop x Water Applied to Field) % 100.
Explanation: Field Water Efficiency (%) = (Water Transpired by Crop %Water Applied to Field) x 100.
11. Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may improve the soil structure owing to the formation of fertile soil.
Explanation: Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may damage soil structure owing to the formation of alkaline soil.
12. What does IWMI stand for?
a) International Water Management Institute
b) International Weather Management Institute
c) Irrigation Water Management Institute
d) International Waste Management Institute
Explanation: The International Water Management Institute IWMI is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia. Research at the Institute focuses on improving how water and land resources are managed, with the aim of underpinning food security and reducing poverty while safeguarding vital environmental processes.
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