# Automotive Engine Components Design Questions and Answers – IC Engine – Design of Studs for Cylinder Head

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1. An engine has a bore diameter of 160mm, what is the maximum number of studs in the engine?
a) 6
b) 7
c) 8
d) 9

Explanation: Maximum number of studs = 0.02D+4
= 0.02×160+4
= 7.2
7.2 studs can’t be taken so it is approximated to 8.

2. An engine has a bore diameter of 150mm, what is the minimum number of studs in the engine?
a) 6
b) 7
c) 8
d) 9

Explanation: Maximum number of studs = 0.01D+4
= 0.01×150+4
= 5.5
5.5 studs can’t be taken so it is approximated to 6.

3. Why studs are used?
a) To ensure the proper fixture of the crankshaft
b) To ensure the proper fixture of connecting rod
c) To ensure the proper fixture of the camshaft
d) To ensure the proper fixture of the cylinder assembly

Explanation: Studs act as the guide ways to the cylinder assembly to reduce the distortion of the planned geometry. The crankshaft is placed below the cylinder. Camshaft placed in the cylinder head and Connecting rod is fixed between piston and crankshaft.

4. ‘Y’ is the notation used usually to denote the number of studs.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: ‘Z’ is the notation used usually to denote the number of studs. These are the circular rods threaded over both sides and connect various engine components.

5. Which of the mentioned below is not the parameter in the design of studs?
a) Nominal diameter of Gudgeon pin
b) Nominal diameter of the cylinder
c) Number of studs
d) Pitch of studs

Explanation: Nominal diameter of the cylinder, Number of studs, Pitch of studs are all the required parameters for the design of studs whereas the Nominal diameter of the Gudgeon pin is used in the design of piston.

6. Which of the following material is used in the manufacturing of studs?
a) Iron
b) Nickel
c) Steel
d) Titanium

Explanation: Ductile is the type of material used in the manufacturing of studs since it has good thermal conductivity, yield strength, and tensile strength. Steel is one of the ductile materials.

7. What is the nominal diameter of studs when the core diameter of studs is 1.5mm?
a) 1.8m
b) 2.5mm
c) 1.8mm
d) 2.5m

Explanation: The nominal diameter of studs when the core diameter of studs is given,
d=$$\frac{d_c}{0.8}$$
d=$$\frac{1.5}{0.8}$$
d=1.87mm

8. What is the pitch of studs, when the diameter of studs is 6mm and the number of studs is 8?
a) 2.35mm
b) 1.80mm
c) 7.00mm
d) 4.95mm

Explanation: Pitch of stud s=$$\frac{\pi \times D_p}{Z}$$
=$$\frac{\pi\times 6}{8}$$
=2.35mm

9. Find the pitch circle diameter of studs, given D=6 and d=4?
a) 16mm
b) 17mm
c) 18mm
d) 19mm

Explanation: Pitch circle diameter of studs is given by,
Dp=D+3d
=6+3×4
=18mm

10. Find the minimum pitch value of studs when d=1.5mm?
a) 23.27mm
b) 0.23mm
c) 2.32mm
d) 4.43mm

Explanation: Minimum pitch=$$19\sqrt{d}$$ =23.27mm

11. Find the maximum pitch value of studs when d=1.5mm?
a) 15.78mm
b) 43.9mm
c) 14.87mm
d) 34.90mm

Explanation: Maximum pitch=28.5$$\sqrt{d}$$ =28.5$$\sqrt{1.5}$$
=34.90mm

a) True
b) False

Explanation: Due to the combustion of fuel, the variation in gas pressure inside the engine cylinder changes from 0 to Pmax. Hence, studs experience fluctuating load.

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