This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Location Awareness – 1”.
1. ______ gives the coordinates of a point in space to represent an object.
Explanation: Position gives the coordinates of a point in space to represent the location of an object. Location is the physical place occupied by an object. Environment is related to the volume usedat the location.
2. Sensing process mainly consists of ____
a) actuators and networks
b) sensors and data-processing methods
c) sensors and actuators
d) actuators and data-processing methods
Explanation: Similar to the location and environment awareness features appearing in nature, location and environment awareness engines consist of three stages namely sensing, awareness, and adaption. Sensing is the first step and is accomplished by sensors and data processing methods.
3. ____are used to convert acquired signals from the environment into ____ signals suitable for cognitive radio.
a) Sensors, physical
b) Sensors, electrical
c) Actuators, electrical
d) Actuators, physical
Explanation: Sensors are used to convert acquired signals from the environment intoelectrical signals suitable for cognitive radio. It is critical to learn and interact with the environment. The acquired signals may be electromagnetic, optic or sound.
4. Radio sensing is a technique that utilizes ____
a) hearing sensors
b) electromagnetic sensors
c) image sensors
d) acoustic sensors
Explanation: Radio sensing is a sensing technique that utilizes electromagnetic sensors. Radio vision is a sensing technique that employs image sensors. Radio hearing is a sensing technique that utilizes acoustic sensors.
5. Which among the following is not an example for electromagnetic sensors?
b) CCD sensors
c) RF sensors
d) Anisotropic magneto resistance sensors
Explanation: Electromagnetic sensors are used to convert electromagnetic signals into electrical signals. Antenna is the most commonly used radio sensing sensor. Location information is obtained from received signal statistics such as time of arrival in antenna based wireless positioning system.
6. Which among the following is type of image sensor described by its structure?
d) Charge Coupled Device
Explanation: An image sensor detects light waves and converts into signals of small bursts of current that convey information to form an image. The image sensors are classified as Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor or Charge Coupled Device based on structure and colour or monochromatic based on chroma type.
7. Image sensors contain ____ made of light sensitive elements.
Explanation: Image sensors contain pixels made of light sensitive elements, micro lenses, and micro electrical components. The sensor also has wire bonds, cover glass, contact pads and interconnecting paths.
8. The function of cover glass is to ____
a) prevent entry of light
b) protect the sensor
c) transfer signals
d) protect contact pads
Explanation: The cover glass is the top most layer providing protection to the sensor and wires while allowing light to reach light sensitive area. The wires transfer signals to the contact pads which is the bottom layer. The package is used to protect contact pads.
9. Which among the following is not an action carried out in image formation?
a) Analog to digital conversion
b) Digital to analog conversion
c) Conversion of photon into electron
d) Conversion of signal charge to electrical signal
Explanation: The first step in image formation is the conversion of photons into electrons. The charges are then collected and transferred. The charge is then converted into an electrical signal such as voltage which is then converted into a digital signal using an analog to digital converter.
10. ____ can convert a scene into text or voice.
a) Cognitive sensing system
b) Adaptive sensing system
c) Cognitive vision system
d) Adaptive vision system
Explanation: Computer vision aims to provide human like vision and perception to computers. Cognitive radios with cognitive vision systems can covert a scene into a text, voice or an image based on the application. These systems are limited by size and cost.
11. Which among the following is a scarce resource in terms of cognitive vision systems?
c) Processing hardware
Explanation: Large amount of information has to be stored for learning and articulation of knowledge. It is important to consider memory as a scarce resource and methods must be developed to use it efficiently. Selection of information of interest and data mining are some techniques to use memory efficiently.
12. Which among the following is not a concern for cognition vision system?
a) RF environment
b) Characteristics of visual sensory sub-process
c) High level representational framework
d) Low level visual sensory sub-process
Explanation: The construction of cognition vision system involves the selection of appropriate high level representation framework, basic visual sensory sub-process, characteristics of visual sensory sub-process catering to the requirement of desired cognition system, negotiator of control process, and properties of control process.
13. Radio hearing sensors use sound propagation for ____
a) converting electromagnetic signal into electrical signals
Explanation: Radio hearing sensors convert acoustic signals into electrical signals. Sound propagation is used for navigation, detection, and communication. For example, acoustic location estimation maybe used for cognitive location aware systems.
14. Image sensors are typically passive.
Explanation: Image sensors are utilized in a passive manner since they only receive signals. Radio hearing and radio sensors are active sensors since they exhibit both transmission and reception characteristic in wireless systems. Image sensors require direct exposure to the environment whereas radio sensors might operate inside a bag.
15. Data processing algorithms are unique to each category of sensors.
Explanation: Sensing is accomplished by sensors and data processing algorithm. Radio sensing, radio vision, and radio hearing have different data processing procedures associated with them. Antenna based positioning systems utilize different algorithm from acoustic based location systems.
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