This set of Cognitive Radio Question Paper focuses on “Next Generation Wireless Network – User Cognitive Techniques – 2”.
1. Which among the following is the maximum limit on one way delay for normal conversation?
Explanation: The allowable one way delay for normal conversation is less than 300 millisecond seconds. Speech coding provides intelligible and quality speech, stress detection, language independence, error free transmission, and tone communication.
2. Which among the following is not a requirement of services that are explicitly invoked?
a) Replicate user interface
b) Modeling user intent
c) Common means to describe user state
d) Automatic detection of input modality
Explanation: Services can be provided by automatic detection or by explicit request. Cognitive radio employs hybrid request handling techniques with respect to the applications. The service requires interfaces to represent the user state, predict the outcome of a task, and to duplicate the human interface.
3. Which among the following statements is false about background suppression?
a) Enhance the effectiveness of text to speech conversion
b) Enhance the effectiveness of a speed coder
c) Extract useful background noise
d) Enhance communication in the presence of noise
Explanation: Background noise suppression enhances the effectiveness of communication and speech coders. It is used to extract information that can be utilized to introduce situational awareness. It also employed to increase voice quality and the cognition level of coded speech.
4. Which among the following is the first step in auditory scene analysis?
a) Pitch scale detection
Explanation: Auditory scene analysis consists of two steps namely segmentation and grouping. Initially, the auditory scene is subdivided into time-frequency zones or segments that exhibit coherent structure. Then the segments tracing back to the same source in auditory streams are grouped.
5. What are the two mechanisms applied in auditory scene analysis?
a) Controlled mechanism and off-controlled mechanism
b) Master mechanism and slave mechanism
c) Serial mechanism and intermittent mechanism
d) Simultaneous mechanism and sequential mechanism
Explanation: Simultaneous mechanism permits the arrangement of segments on the basis of frequencies. The sequential mechanism locates the segments with similar properties in time.
6. Which among the following operation employs heuristic rules in computational auditory scene analysis?
b) Source extraction
Explanation: Computation auditory scene analysis applies heuristic grouping rules developed using psychological observations to separate a source from a single channel of audio. It separates the sound into music, voice, noise, etc.
7. Which among the following provides the procedure of active suppression?
a) Filter with cut off frequencies
b) Emission of sound to cancel noise
c) Emission of sound to shape noise
d) Extraction of noise sample
Explanation: Active noise suppression mitigates the noise experienced by a user by producing a sound to compensate for the undesired noise field. It can reduce the damage inflicted by exposure to high noise levels and reduce the Lombard effect.
8. Which among the following learning methods does not involve explicit planning?
a) Channel based
b) Network based
Explanation: Reactive reasoning and learning does not involve explicit planning. The cognitive system can be programmed to respond to user voice commands and common device configurations. The adaptive cognitive radio stores user preferences, incorporates speech recognition models, and user intent models to learn from past experiences.
9. Which among the following is a disadvantage of network based reasoning?
a) False recognition
b) Protocol standardization
c) High memory requirements
d) Exhaustive resource utilization
Explanation: Cognitive radio can utilize a large network of services to complete user requests. Network based reasoning can collect information localized to a location such as finding restaurants, detecting traffic, detecting weather, etc. It introduces flexibility in the radio and reduces the amount of resources used. However, it exhibits poor latency and requires protocol standardization.
10. Mixed excitation linear prediction coding standard is employed for speaker stress characterization.
Explanation: Mixed excitation linear prediction coding standard was developed for speech compression. It supports bit rates of 600 bits/s, 1200 bits/s, and 2400 bits/s. It can be employed for background noise suppression by integrating with spectral subtraction.
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