This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Aware Radios – 2”.
1. Cognition capability level one may be achieved by ____ technology.
a) rule based expert systems
b) radio based expert systems
c) radio built experimental systems
d) rule built expert systems
Explanation: Cognition capability level one involves goal driven reasoning. It may be achieved by rule based expert systems technology. Rule based systems serve as a means to store, interpret and utilize information.
2. Goals maybe defined in ____ context by introducing ____ awareness.
a) temporal, IF
b) temporal, environment
c) spatial, environment
d) spatial, IF
Explanation: Environmental sensing extends goal driven reasoning to goals defined in spatial context. Location, position, and timing are some examples of functions that require environmental sensors. RF bands and modes are also sensed.
3. ____ involves processing input and output data.
b) Context awareness
c) Radio awareness
d) Goal driven reasoning
Explanation: Context awareness involves understanding the characteristics of communication. The input and output data is analyzed to gain insight on factors that influence the nature of computing and communication services to be used.
4. Computer based planning is ____ level capability.
Explanation: The architecture of planning includes evaluating a situation to fix a goal. The goal drives candidate plans which are examined for pros and cons. The examination leads to action and implementationwhich brings about a change in the situation.
5. A network changing air interface may be tackled by applying ____ structure to situations.
Explanation: Network changing air interface or a user making change arbitrarily may be tackled by applying logical planning structure to situations. However the elements of planning must have fair level of relaxation on the completeness and consistency of planning process.
6. Negotiation capability requires the ______
a) evaluation of goals for plans
b) partition of environment
c) organization of goals for plans
d) management of conflicting plans
Explanation: Negotiation capability requires the management of conflicting plans and conduction of negotiations. It is a cognition level five capability. The expected level of competency includes ontology such as KQML and formalized knowledge.
7. The cognition level six to eight require _______
d) machine learning
Explanation: The cognition level six to eight require machine learning. It involves incorporatingfluency, adapting established plans and protocols. Learning in cognitive radios allows autonomous understanding of radio environment.
8. Which among the following is not a mobile ad hoc network waveform?
a) Multi user objective system
b) Soldier radio waveform
c)Wideband networking waveform
d) Bowman very high frequency waveform
Explanation: JTRS Network Enterprise Domain is responsible for the creation, sustainment, and improvement of interoperable software and network legacy waveforms. Bowman VHF is a legacy waveform.
9. Digital modular radio is an example for _________
a) software programmable radio
b) software capable radio
c) software defined radio
d) software dependent radio
Explanation: Digital modular radio is a software defined radio designed for communication in war zone. It is compatible with previous communication systems and tactical systems such as HF, DAMA, HaveQuick, and SINGCARS. It also includes software defined cryptographic functions.
10. Digital Modular Radio offers coverage of ____
a) 2 KHz to 2 MHz
b) 2 MHz to 2 GHz
c) 2 KHz to 5 MHz
d) 2 MHz to 5 GHz
Explanation: Digital modular consists of four programmable RF channels with coverage of 2 MHz to 2 GHz with duplex communication. It does not require any change in hardware to modify the waveform being used.
11. Small Unit Operations – Situational Awareness System was developed by ____
a) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
b) Defense Advanced Research Program Agency
c) Defense Awareness Research Projects Agency
d) Defense Awareness Research Program Agency
Explanation: Small Unit Operations – Situational Awareness System was developed by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to take advantage of the combined operation of advanced communication, navigation, and situational awareness.
12. Small Unit Operations – Situational Awareness System uses ____ ranging for navigation.
Explanation: Small Unit Operations – Situational Awareness System uses RF ranging and other sensors for navigation with high accuracy. It is particularly useful for military communication in rough terrain. It also provides support for mission planning and training.
13. ____ is characterized by software communication architecture compliance.
a) Near term Digital Radio
c) Joint Tactical Radio System
d) Joint Tactical Terminal
Explanation: Joint Tactical Radio System aims to increase the flexibility and interoperability of globally deployed systems. The operations such as waveform modification are to be accomplished through easy technology and capability upgrades.
14. Propagation model is a system level model.
Explanation: The internal structure model of a radio should provide vast amount of information the characteristics of a network. Propagation models, Quality of service models, and queuing models are some system level models used to characterize a cognitive network.
15. Negotiation dialogs are used in plan generation.
Explanation: Certain user interactions employ negotiation dialogs such as additional costs for roaming. Negotiation dialogs requires natural language analysis, generational capability, and causality analysis.
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