This set of Software Defined Radio Architecture MCQs focuses on “Hardware Architecture – 2”.
1. ____ is used to optimize voltage standing wave ratio.
a) Antenna-matching unit
b) Radiating element
c) Antenna tuner
d) Power amplifier
Explanation: Antennas, operating over a wide frequency range, use antenna tuner to optimize the voltage standing wave ratio. It also results in improvement of radiation efficiency.
2. In ____ antenna, the interface boundary between radio and antenna is blurred.
a) multiple input multiple output
b) single input single output
c) single input multiple output
d) multiple input single output
Explanation: Wide bandwidth, large number of parallel receivers, and modem signal processing blur the interface boundary between radio and antenna in multiple input multiple output antennas.
3. Full duplex means _____
a) only transmission
b) only reception
c) transmission and reception but not at the same time
d) transmission and reception
Explanation: Full duplex means transmission and reception will be carried out simultaneously. Filtering may be done to prevent interference between high power transmission signal and low power received signal.
4. ____ filters can be used to aid full duplex communication.
a) Surface wave acoustic
b) Surface acoustic wave
c) Skin wave acoustic
d) Skin acoustic wave
Explanation: Full duplex means transmission and reception will be carried out simultaneously. Bulk acoustic wave filters, Surface acoustic wave filters, Yttrium-Iron-Garnet circulators are complex structures used to aid full duplex communication.
5. The dynamic range of signals during reception may be maximized by ____
a) frequency conversion
b) automatic gain control
c) frequency conversion and filtering
Explanation: The dynamic range of signals that can be processed at the receiver may be maximized by automatic gain control. Frequency conversion and filtering are done to minimize interference within the operating range of the radio.
6. The error corrected bits are ____ to complete the communication process.
Explanation: The error corrected bits are parsed to identify the header, address, message, traffic, etc. The expected service is delivered to the user after being processed by various protocol layers.
7. The ____ are converted to ____ by ____ detector/demodulator combination.
a) bits, symbols, bit
b) symbols, bits, symbol
c) bits, symbols, symbol
d) symbols, bits, bit
Explanation: The symbols, obtained from down conversion process, are converted to bits by symbol detector/demodulation combination. Matched filter is an example for a detector.
8. Which among the following options have forward error correction integrated into the demodulation process?
a) Trellis code modulation
b) Soft decoding
c) Trellis code modulation and soft decoding
d) Block codes
Explanation: Forward error correction is carried out to reduce the number of bits received in error. It can be integrated into demodulation process such as in Trellis code modulation. It can be closely associated with demodulation process such as in soft decoding of convolution codes.
9. Which of the following is not included under MAC processing?
b) Frame synchronization
c) Error detection
d) IP addressing
Explanation: Media Access Control processing includes framing information, frame synchronization, error detection, MAC addressing, link management, and payload encapsulation. The output of this stage is in the form of bits.
10. Network processing layer is designed with ____ connectivity support.
Explanation: The network processing layer is preceded by medium access control. The input to network processing layer is in the form of bits. The network processing layer is designed with end-to-end connectivity support and its output is transferred to the application layer.
11. The external RF components must be provided with ____ for effective control of parameters such as tuning frequency.
a) control unit
b) physical wires
c) digital interfaces
Explanation: The external RF components must be provided with digital interfaces for effective control of tuning frequency, transmit/receive mode, VSWR, transmit power level sensing and gain control.
12. Which among the following is not considered for detection of abnormal behaviour in power amplifier?
b) Transmitted power level
c) Received power level
Explanation: Power amplifier is a part of RF front end section in transmit mode. It must be informed of transmit/receive mode to start and stop transmission. Transmitted power level, VSWR, and temperature are monitored for detection of abnormal behavour in power amplifier.
13. Web browsing requires ____ for effective operation.
a) low latency
b) data cache
d) fast computation
Explanation: Web browsing needs to store information of webpages which are frequently accessed to avoid transmission of redundant information. Large data cache is required to store the specified information. It is typically implemented using local hard disk.
14. Ad hoc network introduces jitter in packet delivery.
Explanation: In ad-hoc networking, the reception and re-transmission of signal at each node introduces an overall non-uniform delay. Thus ad hoc network introduces jitter in packet delivery and is compensated by using jitter buffer.
15. Each time the transceiver changes frequency, the antenna tuner will need to be informed of the new frequency.
Explanation: Each time the transceiver changes frequency, the antenna tuner will need to be informed of the new frequency. The antenna tunermay sense VSWR and adjust the tuning elements to minimize VSWR.
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