Cognitive Radio Questions and Answers – Architecture – Inference Hierarchy – 2

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This set of Cognitive Radio MCQs focuses on “Architecture – Inference Hierarchy – 2”.

1. Which among the following is achieved by applying horizontal cognition component s in inference hierarchy?
a) Radio skills are embedded
b) Context cluster is developed
c) Hierarchy is demolished
d) Hierarchy is established
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Radio skills are embedded by the introduction horizontal cognition components in inference hierarchy. When radio knowledge is static, radio skills are generated by the intervention of algorithms and inference engines.
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2. What is the function of horizontal cognition components with radio skills?
a) Monitor user behaviour
b) Send request to user
c) Control radio personalities
d) Train internal behaviour
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The horizontal cognition components control radio personalities. It is carried out during the observe phase and the orient phase of the wake cycle. The radio skills are included in active data structures during the process of training or sleeping.

3. Which among the following is avoided in horizontal specify-explore-refine models?
a) Resource dependencies
b) Control dependencies
c) Data dependencies
d) Logical dependencies
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The specify-explore-refine models are continually compared to their associated phase in the hierarchical structure. This enables the model to respond on time and to take immediate action. This is primarily due to the lack of logical dependencies among components.
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4. What is the function of a sensory pre-processing system?
a) Conversion of atomic stimuli into primitive sequence
b) Conversion of atomic stimuli into atomic symbols
c) Conversion of atomics symbols into atomic stimuli
d) Conversion of primitive sequence into atomic stimuli
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The conversion of atomic stimuli into atomic symbols by using a sensory pre-processing subsystem. Advanced signal and video processing tools are required to isolate atomic symbols in industrial cognitive radio.

5. When does the extraction of primitive sequence from higher aggregates is carried out?
a) Wake cycle
b) Prayer cycle
c) Sleep cycle
d) Live cycle
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The formation of atomic symbols can take place by two procedures. The atomic stimuli may combine to form atomic symbol. The atomic symbols may also be formed by learning from higher aggregates. The first type occurs during wake cycle while the second is carried out during sleep cycle.
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6. Which phase is responsible for fast retrieval of data?
a) Act
b) Plan
c) Decide
d) Observe
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Observe phase accumulates all sensor data. The data is parsed and allotted to various processing nodes for fast parallel retrieval. Observe phase occupies large amount of storage to support memory based learning techniques.

7. Which among the following specifies the correct sequence of steps followed to obtain primitive sequence in speech?
a) Isolate the basic sequence, analyse the basic sequence, analyse the primitive sequence
b) Isolate the basic sequence, isolate the primitive sequence, analyse the basic sequence
c) Analyse the basic sequence, isolate the basic sequence, analyse the primitive sequence
d) Isolate the basic sequence, analyse the primitive sequence, analyse the basic sequence
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In speech, the sensor obtains input that correlate with the definition of basic sequence. In order to obtain the primitive sequence, the basic sequence is isolated from background noise. The basic sequence is analysed to identify potential boundaries of primitive sequence. The primitive sequence is then extracted and statistically analysed.
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8. Which among the following is used to save radio skill set knowledge?
a) RaXon Macro Language
b) Web Ontology Language
c) Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language
d) Radio Knowledge Representation Language
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The radio skills obtained by horizontal cognition components associated with each phase are saved in radio knowledge representation language (RKRL) frame. The skill sets are also developed by information from a priori knowledge which is available in the form of RKRL frames.

9. Which among the following is not a class of knowledge required for constructing inference hierarchies?
a) Informal model
b) Axiomatic model
c) Ontology model
d) Behavioural model
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: A cognitive radio requires significant amount of knowledge to be embedded in inference hierarchies. This includes internal and external knowledge. Internal knowledge is required to reason with itself and external knowledge is required to reason with outside environment. Informal model, axiomatic model, and ontology model are few classes of knowledge that are employed to structure the inference hierarchy.
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10. A white space may act as a boundary to derive primitive sequence.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: When aggregated data is available, primitive sequence may be derived by selecting an atomic symbol as a boundary. In a text based system, a white space is regarded as a boundary for generating primitive sequence. For example, white spaces are employed to separate words in text.

11. What application is supported by IBM research tool XTAG?
a) Data analysis
b) Natural Language Processing
c) Machine learning
d) Artificial Intelligence
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: An XTAG system is a grammar development tool based on Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG). It consists of a parser, an X-window grammar development interface, and a morphological analyser. Other tools include SNeps , AGFL, and PC KIMMO which may be employed for natural language processing.

12. How does the cognitive radio access the a priori models?
a) Chat box
b) Handshake mechanism
c) Requests
d) Mappings
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The cognitive radio access the a priori models using mappings that exist between the word, phrase, dialog, and scene levels of the observation phase hierarchy and the encapsulated speech components.

13. Choose the appropriate labels to complete the diagram.
Find the model update from the given diagram
a) Control, training, model update
b) Training, control, model update
c) Model update, control, training
d) Model update, training, control
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The diagram depicts the steps involved in the application and improvement of radio skills. The radio skills developed from static and active knowledge available in observe phase is used to control radio personalities. The radio skill model is also continually updated by using information from act phase.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter