Cognitive Radio Questions and Answers – Architecture Maps – 1

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This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Architecture Maps – 1”.

1. What is an architecture map?
a) Architecture map describes the internal structure of cognitive radio
b) Architecture map describes the sequence of events that occur between stimulus and response
c) Architecture map describes the flow of inference from observation to act phase
d) Architecture map represents cognition functions implemented using cognition components
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Architecture map represents cognition functions implemented using cognition components. It consists of data structures, processes, and flows which are represented using topological maps over abstract domains.
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2. Why should a cognitive radio be capable of differentiating “User” and “Things” entities?
a) To properly filter the signals
b) To offer different levels of priority
c) To amplify the signals
d) To re-direct the signals
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The architecture model builds an environment consisting of world, cognitive radio, and a world model within the cognitive radio. The world is composed of entities such as user, home network, people, things, networks, etc. The cognitive radio must be capable differentiating these entities to respond in accordance to pre-determined priority levels.

3. What is a known sequence?
a) The known sequence refers to the currently recorded stimulus from the outside world
b) The known sequence refers to the immediate past stimulus from the outside world
c) The known sequence refers to a series of stimuli from the outside world
d) The known sequence refers to integrated knowledge of the cognitive radio
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The known sequence corresponds to context cluster sequence of the inference hierarchy. The known sequence refers to the integrated knowledge present in the cognitive behaviour model of cognitive radio.
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4. What are the constituents of a known sequence?
a) Radio Knowledge Representation Language frames
b) Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language frames
c) Radio eXtensible Markup Language frames
d) Web Ontology Language frames
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Known sequence describes the integrated knowledge of cognitive radio. The known sequence is developed by embedding Radio Knowledge Representation Language (RKRL) frames in the cognitive radio. It is also possible to develop known sequence through independent machine learning.

5. Which among the following is the definition of novel sequence?
a) Novel sequence is a record of types of response generated by cognitive radio
b) Novel sequence is a record of types of stimulus encountered by cognitive radio
c) Novel sequence describes the current stimulus-response of cognitive radio
d) Novel sequence is the integration of current stimulus-response and known sequence
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Novel sequence corresponds to the content cluster level of inference hierarchy. It describes the current stimulus-response unit of cognitive behaviour model. The highest level of sequence unit “Scenes” is composed of known sequence and novel sequence.
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6. Which among the following is a data structure included in the architecture map in addition to the general structure of cognition cycle?
a) Decide
b) Dialog state
c) Act
d) Plan
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The cognitive radio section of the architecture map is composed of sequences of inference hierarchy, world model composed of bindings between a-priori data structures and the current scene, and phases of cognition. Dialog states, action requests, plans, and action are additional data structures added to support the phases of cognition cycle.

7. Which among the following is not a part context section of a RKRL frame?
a) Uniform Resource Locator
b) Time
c) Location of frame
d) Stimulus
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The cognition functions and phases are represented using data structures. The data structures are mapped to RKRL frames which are made up of handle, model, body, resources, and context. The handle may correspond to a set or a stimulus. The body may correspond to a subset or a response. The context may correspond to a URL, source, time or location.
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8. Which among the following is used to represent processing components?
a) Flowchart
b) Scatter diagram
c) Topological map
d) Histogram
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The processing components are represented using topological maps in cognitive radio. Input, transformation, reasoning, and projection are few examples of the processing components used in cognitive radio.

9. Which among the following is the map that bridges the world unit with the cognitive radio unit in architecture map?
a) Input
b) Reasoning
c) Planning
d) Acting
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The input map connects the world unit to the sensory data segment of the cognitive radio in architecture map. It is made up of components that convert external input to the format of internal sensory data.
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10. Which among the following is the correct definition of nearest sequence?
a) Nearest sequence is the known sequence that closely matches the novel sequence
b) Nearest sequence is the novel sequence that closely matches the known sequence
c) Nearest sequence refers to two similar known sequences
d) Nearest sequence refers to two similar novel sequences
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Nearest sequence corresponds to the context cluster sequence of inference hierarchy. Nearest sequence is the known sequence that closely matches the novel sequence. Nearest sequence, known sequence, and novel sequence belong to the “Scene” variable which holds the upper most position among the sequence formation maps of architecture map.

11. Waking behaviour prevents unmanageable accumulation of data.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Sleeping/dreaming behaviour prevents unmanageable accumulation of data. Sleeping/dreaming behaviour develop specify-explore-refine model using the information collected during waking behaviour. This helps in embedding real-time experience in the next waking behaviour.

12. Which among the following phases do the components B1, B2 belong?
Find the component B1 and B2 from the given diagram
a) Act
b) Decide
c) Plan
d) Orient
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The component B1 and B2 belong to the orient phase of cognition cycle. B1 evaluates word and phrase bindings to form dialog states. B2 is responsible for creating action requests based on binding and dialog state.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter