Cognitive Radio Questions and Answers – Environment Awareness – 1

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This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Environment Awareness – 1”.

1. Which among the following is not feature of environment awareness core?
a) Propagation channel characteristics
b) Topographical information
c) Meteorological information
d) Security
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Environment awareness engine consists of environment sensing, environment awareness core, and environment adaption. The type of information required, means to acquire the information, and utilization of collected information are concerns of environment awareness engine.
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2. ____ is the practice describing the arrangement of a particular place.
a) Topology
b) Topography
c) Digital elevation model
d) Time mapping
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Topography describes the shapes and features of land surface. It provides accurate and detailed description of a place, city, town, or any tract of land. It includes vegetation and human made structures.

3. Which among the following is not an example of topographical application?
a) Geoscience
b) Topographic maps
c) Nano-topography
d) Networking
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: One of the main applications of topography is topographic maps. There are applications being developed where a captured image is used as input to gather information on the location and environment. This is feature of interest for location and environmental awareness in cognitive radio.
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4. ____ is the science of quantitative land surface analysis.
a) Geology
b) Geography
c) Geoscience
d) Geomorphometry
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Geomorphometry involves describing the terrain, the three dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of landmarks. It uses mathematical, statistical, and image processing techniques to describe the land surface.

5. Propagation characteristics provide _________
a) characteristics of atmosphere
b) characteristics of weather
c) characteristics of signal progression
d) characteristics of traffic
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Propagation characteristics provide information on signal progression through a medium or channel environment. It studies the effect of channel on a signal.
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6. ________ provides information on path loss behaviour.
a) Very large scale statistics
b) Large scale statistics
c) Small scale statistics
d) Very small scale statistics
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Large scale statistics provides information on path loss behaviour of channel environment. Small scale statistics provides information on variations caused in the received signal in time and frequency due to short displacements.

7. Which among the following is a step in defining propagation characteristics in environment awareness engine using cognitive radio?
a) Terrain mapping
b) Temperature monitory
c) Object tracking
d) Channel environment adaption
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The first step in defining propagation characteristics using cognitive radio is environment recognition and classification. It is followed by obtaining the parameters necessary for statistical propagation model. The final step is channel environment adaption.
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8. The traditional means for obtaining propagation channel characteristics is called ____
a) statistical signal modeling
b) statistical channel modeling
c) propagation channel modeling
d) statistical modeling
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Propagation channel modeling involves performing extensive measurements and data processing to define propagation channel characteristics. Delay spread, Doppler spread, and angular speed are few channel characteristics.

9. Objects are ____ in the context of environment awareness.
a) land forms
b) landmarks
c) human made entities
d) natural entities
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Objects are human made entities present in the target environment permanently or temporarily in the context of environment awareness. Vehicles, appliances, packages are few examples of objects. However structures such as buildings are not considered as objects.
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10. Bat echolocation is employed in ____
a) cognitive radar
b) cognitive triangulation
c) cognitive phase shift method
d) cognitive taping
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Bat echolocation is employed in cognitive radar and cognitive sonar. An important feature of environment awareness is object detection, identification, and tracking. These features have direct effect on the environment. Cognitive radar and cognitive sonar may accomplish these specified requirements.

11. Meteorological information focuses on ____ of the target region.
a) channel
b) structure
c) weather
d) relief
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Meteorological information focuses on weather of the target region and its effect on signal propagation. Weather conditions such as snow, rain, temperature, humidity, and pressure have an effect on signal propagation and are measured using sensors.

12. Which among the following can be used as a metric for studying the effect of rain on signal propagation?
a) Symbol rate
b) Bit rate
c) Carrier to interference ratio
d) Delay spread
View Answer

vAnswer: c
Explanation: Meteorological information is studied to adapt the radio in accordance to the weather condition. Rain might induce carrier to interference ratio degradation, carrier to interference ratio improvement, or it might result in any change.

13. LOS – NLOS identification is a ____ application.
a) location based service
b) location assisted network optimisation
c) location assisted transceiver optimization
d) location assisted environment identification
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The ability to distinguish among different propagation environment as a function of line-of-sight is desirable at user terminal. LOS transmission characteristics differ from that of NLOS. LOS – NLOS identification is a location assisted environment identification application.

14. Indoor positioning systems require higher accuracy than outdoor positioning systems.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Indoor positioning systems require higher accuracy than outdoor positioning systems. For example, asset management in industrial areas requires an accuracy of 0.05 – 30 m. Most autonomous location aware applications require high accuracy.

15. Adaptive beam forming is a location based service.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Adaptive beam forming, interference avoidance, and link adaption are location based transceiver optimization applications. Package tracking and child finder are examples of location based service.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter