This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “ Architecture – Observe and Orient Phase of Cognition Cycle ”.
1. What is the function of the observe phase?
a) Sense and perceive
b) Sense and respond
c) Perceive and respond
d) Sense and forget
Explanation: The observe phase interacts with the environment by analysing the input information stream. It may accept multiple inputs from different directions and in different format.
2. What is binding?
a) Naming each path
b) Associating a path for each type of input
c) Developing subsets from multiple inputs
d) Naming each input
Explanation: Binding is the process of grouping input from several directions into a single input or into a group of subsets. It helps to assign a priority level for each input such that the time-sensitive operations are completed first for effective performancce.
3. What is the significance of binding?
a) Less usage of resources
b) Faster implementation
c) Easier to process
d) Easier to compare with prior experience
Explanation: The newly formed bindings are compared with prior experience to identify a close match. The binding is then grouped with the prior experience. This is done to detect patterns that could help in prediction, modelling, and decision making.
4. Which among the following is a requirement of observe phase?
a) Large memory
b) Large bus
c) Precise clock
d) Accurate timer
Explanation: The cognitive radio requires large reserve of memory for storing all experiences. This means that every audio, video, email, and radio signals for over a year must be available for access in memory. Thus architecture capable of retaining information and rapidly correlating current stimulus with available information is required.
5. What is the function of the orient phase?
a) Determine the resources required for a process
b) Determine the weight of a binding
c) Determine the number of bindings that could be processed
d) Determine the duration of a process
Explanation: The orient phase determines the significance or weight of a binding which is formed by associating a stimulus with prior experience. The operations are performed on internal data structures which behave as short term memory.
6. What invokes the change from short term memory to long term memory?
a) Instruction from user
b) Internal structure
d) Prior experience
Explanation: The environment provides the redundancy required to trigger a transfer from short term memory to long term memory. The sleep cycle moderates the transfer and also analyses the contents of short term memory since the last sleep cycle.
7. Which among the following is an expression for matching current stimulus to stored experience?
a) Stimulus tracker
b) Stimulus recognition
c) Experience recognition
d) Experience tracker
Explanation: In addition to binding, stimulus recognition refers to the matching of current stimulus to stored experience. It is carried out when there is an exact match between the stimulus and prior experience. However it does not mean that the reaction is always apt for the condition being worked.
8. Which among the following may be a viable criterion for binding?
a) Number of unmatched features
b) Number of words
c) Number of letter
d) Number of symbols
Explanation: Binding involves matching the current stimulus to a prior experience based on the degree of closeness. The number of unmatched features is an example for a criterion that may be used for binding. If the number of unmatched features is less than the threshold, the binding information is forwarded to the planning stage of cognition cycle.
9. What is instance based learning?
a) It is a family of algorithms that generates new problem instances
b) It is a family of algorithms that compares new problem instances with instances available in training
c) It is a family of algorithms that compares new problem instances with each other to determine the degree of similarity
d) It is a family of algorithms that compares new problem instances with each other to determine the degree of dissimilarity
Explanation: Instance based learning is a family of algorithms that compares new problem instances with instances available in training. Instance based learning builds hypotheses directly from training instances. The significance of instance based learning is that hypotheses complexity increases with increase in data.
10. Observe phase involves cognition components.
Explanation: Observe phase involves user sensory perception and environment sensor components. The orient phase uses cognition components of the aware, adaptive, and cognitive radio architecture.
11. Match the numbered paths with the correct word to complete the cognition cycle.
a) 1 – Normal, 2 – Immediate, 3 – Urgent
b) 1 – Normal, 2 – Urgent, 3 – Immediate
c) 1 – Immediate, 2 – Urgent, 3 – Normal
d) 1 – Immediate, 2 – Normal, 3 – Important
Explanation: The orient phase may omit the planning stage when immediate or urgent action is required. For example, a power failure directly invokes the act stage to save data.
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