Cognitive Radio Questions and Answers – Architecture – Cognitive Radio Components

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This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Architecture – Cognitive Radio Components”.

1. What method may introduce a trade-off between time and space in cognitive radio structure?
a) Introduction of fully programmed solutions
b) Introduction of partial solutions
c) Introduction of real time solutions
d) Introduction of large memory
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The introduction of partial solutions help in solving complex problems because a subset of problems relating to the complex problem will be solved first. The number of calculations may not be completely reduced but there is slight development in the overall computational burden.
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2. What is the full form of NP complexity?
a) Non-deterministic polynomial time
b) Non-linear polynomial time
c) Non-probabilistic polynomial time
d) Non-trainable polynomial time
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The non-deterministic polynomial time is a complexity class in the computational complexity theory. It is used to differentiate decision problems. NP is a collection of decision problems. When a decision results in action, it must have proof that can be confirmed in polynomial time by a deterministic Turing machine.

3. Which among the following is a characteristic that need not be compulsorily present to overcome self-referential inconsistency in cognitive radio?
a) Definition of process as a priori tightly bounded time epochs
b) Step counting function
c) Susceptible to Gödel-Turing condition
d) Pre-defined actions that uses O (1) resources
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In order to computationally support real time transmission and reception, a process must be defined in priori tightly bounded time epochs. A pre-defined action that uses O (1) resources is defined in advance and a reliable step counting function must be present. This will help in avoiding unpredictable usage of resources and unpredictable self-referential loops.
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4. Why is the RXML statement <Self/> added in cognitive radio?
a) To add cognitive architecture to cognitive radio
b) To define functions
c) To define interfaces
d) To eliminate components
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The cognitive radio must evaluate, monitor, and access all resources including affirming downloads. The statement <Self/> is a self-referential component. It is used to add the aware, adaptive, and cognitive radio architecture to aware, adaptive and cognitive radio.

5. What capability demand was boosted upon introduction of machine learning in cognitive radio?
a) RF sensing
b) Haptic sensing
c) Knowledge acquisition
d) Resource acquisition
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Availability of knowledge of a certain degree is essential in cognitive radio to extract user knowledge pertaining to information services. The repeated occurrences of similar activity are considered as learning opportunities. This is exploited by machine learning for incremental knowledge acquisition.
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6. Which among the following methods enable identification of learning opportunities in machine learning in cognitive radio?
a) Gamma distribution
b) Joint probability statistics
c) Variance
d) Uniform distribution
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Machine learning uses joint probability statistics for exploiting learning opportunities that arise due to repeated occurrence of similar situation. High quality use cases help to locate classes of user and knowledge that fine tune the set of services being provided.

7. Which ontologies must work together for seamless user interaction experience?
a) <User/> and <Self/>
b) <User/> and <RF/>
c) <Self/> and <User/>
d) <Self/> and <Func/>
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The best user interaction experience is built when the radio can understand vague commands from the owner. This requires continuous development of user ontology. It also requires the matching of user ontology with RF domain actions.
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8. What does grounding mean in terms of ontology comprehension in cognitive radio architecture?
a) Association of language used by user with that of cognitive radio
b) Association of language used by cognitive radio with that of user
c) Association of network used by user with that of cognitive radio
d) Association of network used by cognitive radio with that of user
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Grounding initially beings with installation of a speech recognition subsystem that identifies common phrases used by the owner while referring to particular services. It is accomplished by text and speech recognition. It also involves asking “yes or no” questions either verbally or on display.

9. Which among the following is added to AACR architecture to construct dialogs?
a) NL acoustic facility
b) NL visual facility
c) Synonyms
d) Distributive inference hierarchy
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The RF concepts are presented to non-technical users by carefully constructing dialogs between <RF/> and <User/>. The introduction of synonyms in AACR architecture coordinates cognition–NL–synthesis interface. For example, the term antenna is associated with wireless-remote speaker.
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10. <User/> learns jargon to express connectivity opportunities to cognitive radio.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: <RF/> learns jargon to express connectivity opportunities to cognitive radio in <User/> terms. The NL visual facility is employed for improving user jargon one instance at a time.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter