This set of Cognitive Radio Objective Questions & Answers focuses on “Architecture Maps – 2”.
1. Which among the following is the component that determines nearest sequence?
Explanation: Nearest sequence refers to the known sequence that closely matches the novel sequence. The reasoning component is responsible for identifying the best match between known sequence and novel sequence. The projection component binds the known sequence, the novel sequence, and the nearest sequence to scene variable.
2. Which among the following components map the output of act phase to various sections of architecture map?
Explanation: The act phase is responsible for activating tasks and allocating the necessary resources for completing the task within the specified time. The effector components may change the radio’s internal state and displays, synthesize speech, and transmit information on wireless networks.
3. Which among the following variables consider user communication context?
Explanation: Scene bindings consider user communication context. This information is used in the generation of plans whichdeal with the context of a situation. The plans are created by the assessment of action requests during the plan phase.
4. Which among the following is the definition of the term domain in the context of architecture map?
a) Domain is the set of subsets of internal data structures over which the map is defined
b) Domain is the set of subsets onto which the map exhibits its output
c) Domain is the set of subsets of variables
d) Domain is the set of subsets of bindings
Explanation: Domain is the set of subsets of internal data structures over which the map is defined. Range is the set of subsets onto which the map exhibits its output. Each topological map consists of a domain and a range.
5. What is the advantage of expressing API components as maps?
a) Easy maintenance
b) Easy accessibility
c) Limited usage of resources
d) Limited constraints
Explanation: API defined as a map lists the methods and the procedure applicable for subsets s1 of a domain that map onto subsets s2 of a range. This enables easy establishment of API while avoiding the constraints the limit the application of API in cognitive radio.
6. Which among the following is a method of keeping track of multiple stimuli-response bindings in an industrial strength cognitive radio?
a) Hypothesis management
b) Recycle management
c) Component management
d) Behaviour management
Explanation: Hypothesis management maintains a record of more than one possible binding of stimuli to a response, scene, state, etc. One approach is to store only the N-best hypothesis. Another approach is to set a threshold on probability and only bindings that meet the threshold are stored for future use.
7. Which among the following has to be carried out for reverse flow of knowledge?
a) Training interfaces
b) Hypothesis management
c) Linear flow of signals
d) Data management
Explanation: The interfaces have to be trained to ensure flow of knowledge can occur from inference hierarchy to the perception systems. This aids in maintaining and altering the internal structure of radio. For example, the vision subsystem and the audio subsystem exchange knowledge to take decision when there is a mismatch in one domain in a two way identification system.
8. Which among the following situationsrequire special training?
a) Recognition of user indoor
b) Recognition of user outdoors on a sunny day
c) Recognition of user’s outdoors during a snowstorm
d) Recognition of user indoor during a snowstorm
Explanation: Visual recognition of user’s outdoors during a snowstorm requires additional processing than indoors as several matching cues might be hidden. This might limit the level of accessibility offered to the user as threshold condition will not be met due to reduced number of matches. Thus special training such as reverse flow of knowledge is required.
9. Which among the following is not an example of noise?
a) Pre-processing algorithm bias
b) Truncation of low energy signal
c) Binding mismatch
d) Conversion error
Explanation: In communication theory, noise refers to anything that hinders proper communication. It occurs in voice signals, images, videos, location estimates, etc. It is a critical aspect in industrial strength cognitive radio.
10. Which among the following is a collection of subsets of a set that is closed under complement and closed under countable union?
a) Sigma algebra
c) Delta algebra
d) Whole set
Explanation: Sigma algebra on a set is a collection of subsets of a set that is closed under complement and closed under countable union. It is also known as measurable space. It is employed in hypothesis management to combine the amount of belief attached to each event as a function of the values allotted to the probability of each event.
11. The transformation component converts atomic stimuli/symbols to primitive sequence.
Explanation: The transformation component consists of units such as speech recogniser, low level software radio interface components which convert atomic stimuli/symbols into primitive sequence. Similarly components from immediate lower level sequence combine to form higher level sequences.
12. Which among the following phases do the components A1, A2, A3 belong?
Explanation: The components A1, A2, and A3 belong to observe phase of the cognition cycle. A1 is called as input map which connect the world unit to sensory data. A2 is a transformation component that converts atomic stimuli into primitive sequence. A3 is projection component that binds sequence to bindings.
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