This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Next Generation Wireless Network – Radio Environment Map – 1”.
1. What is a radio environment map?
a) Radio environment map represents a collection of access points in the immediate vicinity
b) Radio environment map provides insight on radio environment over multiple domains such as regulation and frequency emission
c) Radio environment map represents cognitive radios in the immediate vicinity
d) Radio environment map represents cognitive radios participating in cooperative sensing
Explanation: Radio environment map provides an abstraction of real time radio environment. It defines the radio environment of cognitive radio using multiple characteristic features such as geographical conditions, regulation, policy, capability of radio equipment, and radiofrequency emissions.
2. Which among the following statements is false about the radio environment map?
a) Radio environment map does not require complex circuitry in the user device
b) Radio environment map records radio frequency emissions
c) Radio environment map is a spatiotemporal database
d) Available resource map is extended from a radio environment map
Explanation: Radio environment map is a spatiotemporal database capable of supporting cognitive functionalities such as planning, learning, and reasoning of the user equipment. The radio environment map is an extension of the available resource map which includes all radio activities in the unlicensed wide area network in real time.
3. Which among the following incorporates knowledge to support cognition functionality?
a) External administration support
b) Internal administration support
c) External network support
d) Internal network support
Explanation: External networks are other networks in an area with knowledge to promote cognition functionality. For example, a sensor network created to gather information on cognitive radio networks. Internal network offer communication services and cognition functionality.
4. Which among the following is an advantage of spectrum sensing with radio environment map?
a) High sensitivity
b) Low transmission power
c) Reduction in observation time
d) High dynamic range
Explanation: The radio environment map holds both present and past radio environment information. Spectrum sensing with prior knowledge is more effective than continuous scanning of the entire radio spectrum. Consequently, the observation time, cost, and energy consumption of radio can be reduced.
5. Which among the following is achieved by combing learning with data mining in the radio environment map?
a) Observation intelligence
c) Network intelligence
d) Resource intelligence
Explanation: The incorporation of information obtained from reasoning, learning, and data mining in the radio environment map provides network intelligence. Network nodes obtain cognitive capabilities through network intelligence irrespective of the cognition capability of subscriber radios. Cognition capability can be provided to the legacy networks by combining them with the radio environment map.
6. Which among the following units communicates with radio environment map in legacy radios?
a) Local control and access manager
b) Local bus manager
c) Specialized processor
d) Network radio resource manager
Explanation: The radio environment map aids legacy radios or hardware reconfigurable radios by providing smart network operation by introducing cognitive strategies to the network radio resource manager. While in cognitive radios, it aids in situational awareness and adaptations.
7. Which among the following statements is false about a radio operating with the radio environment map?
a) Aware of application layer operations
b) Aware of physical layer operations
c) Awareness of performance metrics
d) Incompatibility with underlying radio access technology
Explanation: Radio environment map enables a radio to be aware of performance metrics such as data rate, spectral efficiency, etc. A radio with a radio environment map is comprehensive of each layer of protocol stack under different and varying radio environments. Radio environment map is compatible with underlying radio access technology regardless of the cognition capability of user radio.
8. Which among the following statements is false about the incorporation radio environment map in communication systems?
a) Radio environment map supports adaption regardless of available resources
b) Radio environment map allows network access on the basis of performance metrics
c) Radio environment map supports collaborative information processing
d) Radio environment map supports various network architectures
Explanation: Effective adaption of radio environment map is limited by radio scenarios such as available services, user policy, radio equipment capability, and available spectrum. Radio environment map supports various network architectures, collaborative information processing, and network access on the basis of performance metrics.
9. Which among the following technologies is employed to predict performance metrics?
a) Network based ontology
b) Very large scale integrated circuits
c) Radio propagation simulation tools
d) Geographical information system
Explanation: Radio propagation simulation tools are used to predict important parameters such as path loss, signal to noise ratio, and geographical environment information. Location specific radio propagation techniques with 3 D terrain maps offer accurate predictions that can provide better system planning and management.
10. Which among the following is a function of policy service?
a) Policy decision
b) Policy life cycle management
c) New policy request
d) Policy enforcement
Explanation: Police service is involved in the maintenance of policies that were downloaded and included in the radio frame by a policy authority. It performs policy life cycle management operations such as parsing the policy language, monitoring operation status, and eliminating outdated policies.
11. The cyclic coordinate method of optimization depends on the properties of objective functions.
Explanation: Cognitive radios apply optimization techniques to handle complex parameters. Classical optimization techniques depend on the properties of the objective function. They are analytically more traceable when compared to heuristic optimization techniques. The cyclic coordinate method and the steepest descent method are examples of optimization algorithms.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Cognitive Radio.
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