This set of Cognitive Radio Interview Questions and Answers for freshers focuses on “Location Awareness – 2”.
1. Which among the following is not feature of location awareness core?
a) Mobility management
b) Topographical information
c) Seamless positioning
Explanation: Location sensing is followed by location awareness. Location awareness means to be aware of the location. The results of location awareness are transferred to cognition engine. Seamless positioning and interoperability, security and privacy, statistical learning and tracking, and mobility management are features of location awareness core.
2. European SPACE project uses ____
a) radio hearing method
b) environment imaging method
c) waveform based method
d) environment sensing based method
Explanation: Seamless positioning may be achieved by waveform based method. This approach requires knowledge on all type of existing and future waveforms of current and future systems. European SPACE project is an example of this method and offers centimeter level positioning accuracy.
3. In European SPACE project, the ____ approach helps to support future waveforms.
a) vendor libraries
b) plug and play
d) pre-defined libraries
Explanation: The SPACE prototype consists of sensors, algorithms, and existing waveforms. The most appropriate positioning mechanism is selected based on user requirement and environment. The prototype has plug and play property which enables easy integration of future waveforms and positioning techniques.
4. RSS based location estimation algorithm is an example of ____
a) traffic based method
b) waveform based method
c) environment sensing based method
d) source based method
Explanation: Environment sensing based method may be used for seamless positioning. It monitors channel parameters and changes the algorithm accordingly. In RSS location based algorithm, location of device and path loss coefficient of channel environment are used to maintain accuracy.
5. Environment based method has ____ waveform based method.
a) higher complexity than
b) lower complexity than
c) equal complexity as
d) equal time duration as
Explanation: Seamless positioning involves maintenance of position accuracy regardless of changes in channel environment. Waveform based approach and environment sensing based approach are the two techniques employed to achieve seamless positioning. Waveform based approach requires large database of all existing and future waveform and hence is more complex than environment sensing based method.
6. In ____, interoperability is achieved by using ____ waveform.
a) cognitive-cognitive radio, same
b) cognitive-legacy radio, different
c) cognitive-cognitive radio, different
d) legacy-legacy radio, different
Explanation: There are two arrangements namely cognitive-cognitive radio and cognitive-legacy radio. Communication maybe carried out if both cognitive radios use the same waveform. Otherwise a waveform is chosen by both radios prior to communication.
7. Which among the following is done to establish communication?
a) Legacy radio reconfigures for communication
b) Cognitive radio uses different waveform for communication
c) Cognitive radio adapts legacy radio waveform
d) Legacy radio adapts cognitive radio waveform
Explanation: Communication between cognitive and legacy radio may be achieved only if the former uses the waveform supported by legacy radio. Legacy radio does not have re-configurability features.
8. Tracking the position of cognitive radio without ____
a) authorization violates user privacy
b) authorization is an adversarial attack
c) authentication violates user privacy
d) authentication is an adversarial attack
Explanation: Security and privacy are major points of concern in a cognitive radio. The two main threats are tracking the position of cognitive radio without authorization and adversarial attack. The former is a threat to user privacy and the latter can lead to malfunction of several location based application.
9. Geopriv is a working group under the ____
a) International Engineering Task Force
b) International Education Task Force
c) Internet Engineering Task Force
d) Internet Education Task Force
Explanation: Geopriv is working group under IETF mainly involved in wired networks. It examines the authorization, privacy, security, and integrity required for a particular transfer of information.
10. Which among the following is not a location based service?
a) Package tracking
b) Road side assistance
c) Patient tracking
Explanation: Location awareness applications are mainly classified into location based services, location assisted transceiver optimization, location assisted network optimization, and location assisted environment identification. Package tracking, road side assistance, and patient tracking are location based services. Handover falls under location assisted network optimization.
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