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This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Techniques – Optimisation of Radio Resources – 1”.

1. The ____ function provides the share of ____ to the parameter to be optimised.
a) subjective, a particular variable
b) subjective, each variable
c) objective, each variable
d) objective, a particular variable

Explanation: The objective function provides the share of each variable to the parameter to be optimised.The objective function is given by the product of objective coefficient and decision variable. The physical layer is described in terms of objective functions for radio resource optimisation.

2. Objective space is described using ____ set of ____ functions.
a) one dimensional, objective
b) multi-dimensional, objective
c) one dimensional, exponential
d) multi-dimensional, exponential

Explanation: Objective space comprises of total possible solutions to a problem. It is defined over multidimensional set of objective functions. Radio resources that define radio behaviour form the cognitive radio objective space.

3. Which among the following is a potential goal for resource allocation optimisation?
a) Resources are used only to satisfy needs
b) Resources are kept in waiting
c) Resources are permanently allocated for each task
d) Resources are allocated with a permanent priority schedule

Explanation: The utilization of resources by each node is monitored with a global perspective of optimising radio resources. It should be done without compromising the quality of service available to the user and avoid over usage of resources.

4. Multi objective optimisation involves ____ over more than one criterion.
a) integrating
b) deriving equations
c) encapsulating
d) decision making

Explanation: Multi objective optimisation involves decision making over more than one criterion. It deals with mathematical optimisation problems where optimisation of many objective functions has to be carried out simultaneously.

5. Which among the following is not an alternative expression for Pareto optimal?
a) Dominated
b) Pareto efficient
c) Non inferior
d) Non dominated

Explanation: The optimisation of all objectives simultaneously is not possible as improvement of one objective might negatively affect another objective. A Pareto optimal solution is one where none of the objective functions may be improved without degrading another objective value.
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6. A set of Pareto optimal solutions is referred to as ____
a) Pareto square
b) Pareto box
c) Pareto circle
d) Pareto boundary

Explanation: A set of Pareto optimal solutions is referred to asPareto boundary or Pareto frontier. The Pareto front of a multi-objective optimisation is bounded by nadir objective vector and ideal objective vector.

7. Which among the following have direct dependency relationship?
a) BER and bandwidth
b) BER and SINR
c) SINR and bandwidth
d) Bandwidth and power

Explanation: Direct dependency involves the one to one relationship between two parameters. Indirect dependency involves creating links between parameters based on objective dependency. Bit error rate directly depends on bandwidth and is indirectly related to signal to noise ratio.

8. Bit error rate depends on ____
a) source
b) route
c) channel

Explanation: Bit error rate is defined by the amount of bits received in error from the total number of bits received. Bit error rate primarily depends of channel type and modulation technique.

9. Which among the following is a monitor parameter of BER?
a) Noise power
b) Transmission power
c) Path loss
d) Bandwidth

Explanation: A monitor parameter is one which can be set by the cognitive radio. Meters are factors that can be measured and used for analysis but cannot be controlled. Transmission power is a monitor parameter. Noise and path loss are meters.

10. Bit error rate calculation depends on ____ at the receiver.
a) correlator
b) signal to noise ratio
c) analog to digital converter
d) error detection codes

Explanation: Cognitive radio sets the transmitted power. The transmitted power, the path loss, and the noise floor can be used to compute received power and noise power. SNR is an important factor in this calculation.

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