Cognitive Radio Questions and Answers – Aware Radios – 1

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This set of Cognitive Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Aware Radios – 1”.

1. The network does not have a ____ to pose questions about the radio.
a) standard categorization
b) standard classification
c) standard language
d) standard definition
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The inability to gain knowledge by asking questions due to the lack of a standard language and the inability to understand radio structure due to the lack of computationally accessible description are the primary factors for the overall lack of awareness in a radio.
2. The model of equalizer should contain ____ knowledge about equalizers.
a) non-automatic
b) codified
c) automatic
d) non-codified
View Answer
Answer: b
Explanation: The model of equalizer should contain codified knowledge about equalizers. Equalizer is included as a part of the modem software. The radio may be made aware that an equalizer’s time domain taps reflect the channel impulse response.
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3. Which among the following is a function of radio model?
a) DSP
b) RF conversion
c) Coding
d) User interface
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A radio model should contain representation of it functions and components. Transmission, reception, and coding are examples of functions of radio. Antenna, RF conversion, and DSP are examples of components of radio.

4. The CR prototype introduces ____ frames into the model based ____ architecture.
a) Radio Knowledge Representation Language, coding
b) Radio Knowledge Reasoning Language, reasoning
c) Radio Knowledge Reasoning Language, coding
d) Radio Knowledge Representation Language, reasoning
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The CR prototype introducesRadio Knowledge Representation Language frames into the model based reasoning architecture. The CR prototype improves the original framework of cognitive radio. This is achieved by introducing machine learning, natural language processing, and radio architecture.
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5. Baseband processor hosts ____ software.
a) encoding
b) decryption
c) protocol
d) encryption
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The internal structure radio model should aid system level interactions with the network. A detailed report on internal capabilities and the ability to download new capabilities when required must be made possible by the radio model. For example, the baseband processor contains protocol and control software.

6. Which among the following is considered as second level capability in radio cognition?
a) Pre-programmed
b) Goal-driven
c) Radio aware
d) Context aware
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Context awareness is responsible for obtaining the context of external communication with minimal user involvement. Natural language, societal roles, and discourse are a part of model scope.
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7. A conventional programmed digital radio or a software radio is represented by level ____ capability.
a) one
b) two
c) six
d) zero
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The level zero capability represents a radio with no model based reasoning capability. It is called as pre-programmed radio model and does not have a model scope.

8. SINCGARS ____ combines with SINCGARS radios and elevates operational ability in the Tactical Internet (TI) environment.
a) Advanced System Innovation Policy
b) Advanced System Improvement Program
c)Advanced System Innovation Program
d) Advanced System Improvement Policy
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: SINCGARS ASIP radios are software programmable. They provide improved data capability. They also offer better FEC for low-speed data modes, a GPS interface, and an Internet controller. They reduce size and weight.
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9. ____ is forward and backward ____ with theintegrated broadcast service.
a) Joint Transport Terminal, compatible
b) Joint Tactical Terminal, compatible
c) Joint Transport Terminal, convertible
d) Joint Tactical Terminal, convertible
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Joint Tactical Terminal is a high performance software radio.Joint Tactical Terminal is forward and backward compatible with the integrated broadcast service. The changes in format and protocol can be adapted by JTT by using a software download.

10. Which among the following is a prototype for mobile ad-hoc network?
a) Near Term Digital Radio
b) Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System
c) Position Location Reporting System
d) Multifunction Information Distribution System
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Near Term Digital Radio is a mobile packet data radio. It has self-organizing and self-healing network capability. Near Term Digital Radio consists of two parts namely clustering and routing.
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11. Mobile ad-hoc network is a ____ type of ____ network.
a) decentralized, wired
b) decentralized, wireless
c) centralized, wired
d) centralized, wireless
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Mobile ad-hoc network is a decentralized type of wireless network. Routing is accomplished by nodes forwarding data to other nodes. This is carried out on the basis of connectivity and specific routing algorithm.

12. Enhanced Position Location Reporting System used ____ communication network.
a) OFDMA
b) FDMA
c) CDMA
d) TDMA
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Enhanced Position Location Reporting System operates in the ultra-high frequency band. It uses frequency hopping, spread spectrum waveform. The two main functions of EPLRS is data distribution and position location and reporting.

13. Which among the following is used by routers of Near Term Digital Radio?
a) Open Shortest Path First
b) Routing Information Protocol
c) Radio Routing Information Protocol
d) Radio Open Shortest Path First
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Clustering labels a network into cluster heads and cluster members. Radio Open Shortest Path First is used by routers of Near Term Digital Radio. ROSPF adjacencies are introduced and eliminated in accordance to mobile ad-hoc network information provided by NTDR routers.

14. Radios that perceive all or part of their surrounding are considered adaptive systems.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Radios that perceive all or part of their surrounding are considered aware systems. For examples, a voice radio capable of sensing audio frequencies. Awareness extends from simple protocol decisions to controlling network for maintaining the state of awareness.

15. Interference may be estimated by sensing RF spectrum.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: An aware radio uses various sensors to gather information on the environment. An RF spectrum may be sensed to gain information on interference, channel and signals.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter