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This set of Software Defined Radio Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Performance Management Tradeoffs”.

1. Which of the following expression can be used to compute processing demand providedif, Ps, Pbs, Pbb and Pmo stands for IF, source, bitstream, baseband, and management overhead processing demand respectively?
a) P=Pif+Ps+Pbs+Pbb+Pmo
b) P=Pbb+N*(Pif+Pmo)+Ps+Pbs
c) P=Pif+N*(Ps+Pbs+Pbb)+Pmo
d) P=Pif+(Pbs*Pbs*Pbb)+Pmo

Explanation: P=Pif+N*(Ps+Pbs+Pbb)+Pmo is the expression used to compute processing demand. Processing demand depends on a first-order approximation on the signal bandwidths. It is also influenced by the intricacy of the operations in the IF, baseband, bitstream, and source segments.

2. Resource utilization is the ratio of average _____ to average _____
a) offered demand, effective capacity
b) offered demand, offered capacity
c) effective demand, effective capacity
d) effective demand, offered capacity

Explanation: Resource utilization relates processing demand to processing capacity. It is given by the ratio of average offered demand to average effective capacity. It can be estimated for buses, CPUs, storage devices, I/O devices, and DSP chips.

3. Effective utilization is observed when utilization value is kept _____
a) greater than 0.5
b) less than 0.5
c) between 0.5 – 0.75
d) between 0.65 – 0.75

Explanation: Good performance is observed when utilization is less than 0.5. There is 50% available capacity. The unprecedented performance degradation generally causes utilization to fall in the range between 0.5 – 0.75. When utilization is greater than 0.75, the system is regarded as unstable.

4. _____ characterizes data flow path.
a) Data path model
b) Queuing model
c) Operational model
d) Critical resource model

Explanation: The first step in performance management process is the identification of critical resources. Critical resource model characterizes data flow path, control flow path and each of the significant processing source.

5. Which of the following is the second step in performance management technique?
a) Comparison of critical resource model
b) Creation of queuing models
c) Categorization of critical resource model
d) Creation of performance management spreadsheet

Explanation: The performance management spreadsheet systematizes the description of processing demand. If processing capacity is estimated early in the development cycle, facility utilization can be automatically estimated.

6. _____ are software configuration items that are encapsulated as objects.
a) Pseudo objects
c) Rounded objects
d) Quantified objects

Explanation: Quantified objects are software configuration items that are encapsulated as objects. It is accessed via message passing, consumes particular data and program memory, and consumes specified processing resources.

7. Which of the following is not a step involved in the estimation of MIPS change induced by re-hosting scenarios?
a) Translation of instruction mix to the new processor
b) Determination of instruction mix of the library object
c) Deposition of instruction mix to the new processor
d) Determination of demand per processor to manage resource utilization

Explanation: The change induced in MIPS due to re-hosting scenarios is computed by determining the instruction mix of the library object, translating the instruction mix to the new processor, and determining demand per processor to manage resource utilization. It is important to determine this parameter to compute the number of new processors required for large scale application.

8. Which of the following is not described about an object in a performance management spreadsheet?
b) Instruction set
c) Processor
d) Trigger event

Explanation: The performance management spreadsheet identifies the particular thread managed by an object, processor on which it runs, event that triggers the thread, and the stimulus rate of those events. The spreadsheet also sums the total demand produced by a processor.

9. The _____ is the sum of the time delays experienced in each processor that supports the thread.
a) overall delay
b) aggregate delay
c) response time
d) aggregate time

Explanation: The response time is the sum of the time delays experienced in each processor that supports the thread. The resource management spreadsheet computes these sums for all threads defined in the system. The traces of the thread over the network are used to verify the accuracy of the calculation.

10. The number of instructions per invocation is called _____
a) object complexity
c) instruction complexity
d) instruction set complexity

Explanation: The number of instructions per invocation is called the execution complexity, thread complexity, sub thread complexity, or just the complexity. The product of processor MIPS and processor fraction divided by invocation rate yields equivalent instructions per invocation.

11. The total software demand is given by __________

Explanation: The total software demand is given by the product of thread activation rate, complexity, and sub thread load factor. The load factor reflects the number of times a sub thread is invoked for an incoming stimulus. The number of instructions per invocation is called the complexity.

12. Which of the following is not a software requirement required by CDMA?
a) Symbol integration
b) Blind equalization
c) Tracker
d) Viterbi decoder

Explanation: Carrier tracking is achieved by tracker. Viterbi decoder is a maximum likelihood majority decoder. Blind equalization is implemented by weighted tapped delay line filter. These functionalities are accomplished using software. Although symbol integration is required by CDMA, it is implemented using ASIC.

13. _____ is the intersection of a thread with a processor.
c) Wire
d) Process

Explanation: A thread is a complete path from event trigger to response. A sub thread is the intersection of a thread on a processor. It may consist of a single object invocation, or multiple objects may be invoked.

14. Determining the overall performance is a step carried out to establish specification.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Determining the average performance, selecting a variance ratio, and using incomplete Gamma function are the steps involved in establishing specification.

15. The performance management process consists of two steps.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Identification of critical resources, creation of performance management spreadsheet, analysis of queuing implications, and analysis of variance are the four steps in the performance management process.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Software Defined Radio.

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