# Geotechnical Engineering Questions and Answers – Stress Condition in Soil :Effective and Actual Pressure

This set of Geotechnical Engineering Questions and Answers focuses on “Stress Condition in Soil :Effective and Actual Pressure”.

1. Total stress or unit pressure on a soil mass is ___________
b) Total surface area
c) Total volume
d) Total weight

Explanation: At any plane in a soil mass, the total stress or unit pressure is the total load per unit area.

2. At any plane, pore pressure is equal to ___________
a) Ratio of Piezometric head to weight of water
b) Equal to piezometric head times the unit weight of water
c) Ratio of weight of water to the piezometric head
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: u = hw × γw
Pore pressure=piezometric head × weight of water.

3. Pressure transmitted from particles to the soil mass is called ___________
a) Neutral pressure
b) Effective pressure
c) Pore pressure
d) Capillary pressure

Explanation: Effective pressure ‘σ’ or intergranular pressure is the pressure transmitted from particle through their point of contact through the soil mass above the plane.

4. The neutral pressure does not have any effect on ___________
a) Shearing resistance
b) Shearing strength
c) Shearing stress
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: The neutral pressure does not have measurable influence on the mechanical property of the soils, such as shearing resistance.

5. The total pressure in a soil mass consists of _____________ distinct components.
a) 3
b) 4
c) 2
d) 5

Explanation: i. Effective pressure or intergranular pressure.
ii. Neutral pressure or pore pressure, are the two components of total pressure.
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6. The neutral pressure is transmitted through ___________
a) Soil particle
b) Pore fluid
c) Air particle
d) Atmosphere

Explanation: As the neutral pressure should not have any effect on void ratio or property of soil, it is transmitted through pore fluid.

7. Total vertical pressure at any plane is equal to __________
a) σ = σ’ + u
b) σ’ = σ + u
c) σ = σ’ + v
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Total vertical pressure at any plane is equal to the sum of effective pressure and the total pressure i.e. σ = σ’ + u.

8. Factor of unit cross-section χ, depends on ____________
a) degree of saturation
b) soil structure
c) stress change
d) all of the mentioned

Explanation: Factor of unit cross-section varies with the degree of saturation, soil structure, process by which the soil present degree of saturation and stress change.

9. For degree of saturation, it is recommended to take χ as _____________
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) ∞

Explanation: For degree of saturation of S ≥90%, it is recommended to take χ as unity (i.e., 1).

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